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Diffusion and electrical activation of indium in silicon

Diffusion und elektrische Aktivierung von Indium in Silicium
: Scalese, S.; Italia, M.; La Magna, A.; Mannino, G.; Privitera, V.; Bersani, M.; Giubertoni, D.; Barozzi, M.; Solmi, S.; Pichler, P.

Fulltext urn:nbn:de:0011-n-176579 (294 KByte PDF)
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Created on: 7.2.2015

Journal of applied physics 93 (2003), No.12, pp.9773-9782
ISSN: 0021-8979
ISSN: 1089-7550
Journal Article, Electronic Publication
Fraunhofer IISB ()
indium silicium diffusion; Kohlenstoffaktivierung

In this work we investigate the diffusion and the electrical activation of In at oms implanted into silicon with energies ranging from 40 to 360 keV and doses of 5310 12 and 5310 13 In/cm 2 during rapid thermal processing. Our investigation shows a clear dependence of In outdiffusion and electrical activation on the imp lant depth. For a fixed dose, the electrical activation was found to increase wi th the implant energy. We propose that the data can be explained by considering the balance between the local In concentration and the C background. The occurre nce of coupling between the C present in the substrate and the implanted In, dep ending on the C/In ratio, may in fact give rise to significant formation of CIn complexes. Such complexes play a role in the enhanced electrical activation due to the shallower level they introduce into the Si band gap (Ev+0.111 eV), with respect to the rather deep level (Ev+0.156 eV) of In alone [R. Baron et al., App l. Phys. Lett. 30, 594 (1977); R. Baron et al., ibid. 34, 257 (1979)]. The inter action of In atoms with the C background inside the silicon substrate has been, therefore, identified as the most likely origin of this behavior. In and C coimp lantation has also been studied in this work, in order to further investigate th e key role of C in the increase of electrical activation. A large increase of el ectrical activation has been detected in the coimplanted samples, up to a factor of about 8 after annealing at 900 °C. However, C precipitation occurs at 1100 ° C, and has dramatic effects on the carrier concentration that falls by even two orders of magnitude. This limits the maximum thermal budget that can be used for In activation in C coimplanted material.