Publications Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
  • Publication
    Structure-Odor Activity Studies on Derivatives of Aromatic and Oxygenated Monoterpenoids Synthesized by Modifying p‑Cymene
    ( 2020)
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    ; ;
    Buettner, Andrea
    Thymoquinone was recently reported as having a unique pencil-like odor and being the impact compound for the cedar-like and cedar wood-based product smell such as pencils. The compounds thymol and carvacrol are structurally related odorants commonly found in plants and foods such as thyme and oregano, also having a significant contribution to their overall aroma. However, a systematic elucidation of the sensory properties in this class of oxygenated, aromatic monoterpenoids has not been carried out. To close this gap and gain new insights into structure-odor relationships leading to pencil-like and woody odors, 19 structurally related derivatives of p-cymene starting from thymol and carvacrol were synthesized and characterized. The compounds had odor thresholds ranging from 2.0 ng/L air to 388.8 ng/L air, being lowest for thymol and carvacrol and highest for thymohydroquinone. The compounds smelled mostly thyme-like, oregano-like, and pencil-like with phenolic, earthy, and medicinal variations in their odor character, which could be successfully linked to structural motifs.
  • Publication
    Nosy confirmation: Reconstitution of the characteristic odor of softwood via quantitative analysis and human sensory evaluation
    ( 2020)
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    ;
    Buettner, Andrea
    The significance of wood odors beyond flavoring effects for barbecues and wine aged in barrels has recently been under discussion. Wood has an immense influence on our physical and mental condition through our palate, such as positive health and mood-stimulating effects. As a result of increased public interest, the key odorants from various natural wood species were recently decoded. To gain profound insights into the contribution of single odorants to the overall scent of distinct wood types, this study compares several softwood species (Scots pine, incense cedar, European larch, Norway spruce, and white fir) by odor profile analysis. Nine odor-active constituents, which were previously detected in those woods, were quantified using stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA). Odor activity values (OAVs) calculated on the basis of odor thresholds (OTs) determined in cellulose revealed hexanal, octanal, (E)-non-2-enal, p-cresol, vanillin, and thymoquinone as dominant odorants for wood odor. Recombination experiments by mixing the odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations in a cellulose matrix confirmed the successful characterization of the key odorants for Scots pine and incense cedar wood.
  • Publication
    Out of the woods: Psychophysiological investigations on wood odors to estimate their suitability as ambient scents
    ( 2020)
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    ;
    Blankenagel, Sonja
    ;
    Packhaeuser, Kai
    ;
    ;
    Loos, Hélène
    Wood has been an important raw material for centuries, and humans encounter it in the form of furniture and building materials or in products of daily use. The odors emanating from such wood-based materials can add another facet to their functionality by influencing human well-being and mood. Moreover, wood odors can be used in odor-enhanced environments to foster relaxation and stress recovery. The current study was conducted to assess the subjective evaluation of, and physiological responses to, wood odors and individual wood odor constituents. The subjects smelled the odors of pine needles oil, cedar wood oil, a-pinene, and thymoquinone and evaluated the odor percept and their subjective feelings. Heart rate, finger temperature, and skin conductance were monitored throughout the experiment. The results showed that wood odors were distinct regarding their pleasantness, familiarity, and intensity. All odors enhanced the subjective feelings of happiness and content. Though no odor-specific physiological effects became evident, certain physiological measures correlated with self-reports of happy and relaxed feelings and the intensity ratings of the odors. The present study provides a basis for further studies on the use of wood odors as ambient scents and helps understanding the influence of natural odors on humans.
  • Publication
    A systematic review of physiological responses to odours with a focus on current methods used in event-related study designs
    ( 2020)
    Loos, Helene M.
    ;
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    Objectives In odour research, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the detailed understanding of the determinants and the magnitude of an odour's impact on human psychophysiology. Therefore, the present review aims to summarize current evidence on psychophysiological responses to olfactory events, to highlight diversity in research methods, and to provide recommendations for further research. Material and methods Predefined search items were used for literature research in two databases, focussing on recent investigations of cardiac and electrodermal responses to short (<10 s) olfactory stimulations, combined with self-reports on odour experience, in a healthy population. The selected 27 publications were evaluated with regard to their methods and their findings on psychophysiological correlates of odour stimulation, following a conceptual scheme proposing mediating and moderating factors of physiological responses to odour stimuli. Results The cardiac and electrodermal activity generally followed a discriminative pattern depending on the perceived pleasantness of an odour. Moreover, the trigeminal aspect of an odour stimulus became evident in electrodermal activity in several studies. Finally, for many of the here addressed potentially mediating and moderating variables, initial findings were obtained in some studies but these await corroboration by future research. With regard to the applied methodology, the reviewed studies were highly diverse, in terms of odour application, study design, and analysis of the time series data. Conclusions Future research is needed to advance our understanding of, and theoretical concepts beyond, psychophysiological responses to olfactory events, and to achieve experimentally validated methodological guidelines for psychophysiological measurements in olfaction research.
  • Publication
    Resolving the smell of wood - identification of odour-active compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)
    ( 2018)
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    Bauer, Patrick
    ;
    Buettner, Andrea
    Being one of the most common trees in forests, Pinus sylvestris L. is a frequently used raw material for wood products. Its specific odour is, however, mostly unresolved to date. Accordingly, we investigated Scots pine wood samples grown in Germany for their main odorant composition. We employed dedicated odorant analysis techniques such as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and successfully detected 44 odour-active compounds; of these, 39 substances were successfully identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (2D-GC-MS/O). Among the main odorants found were (E,E)-nona-2,4-dienal, vanillin, phenylacetic acid, 3-phenylpropanoic acid, d-octalactone and a-pinene, all of them having been detected with high flavour dilution factors during GC-O analyses. The majority of the identified odorants were fatty acid degradation products, plus some terpenoic substances and odorous substances resulting from the degradation of lignin. Although some of the detected substances have previously been reported as constituents of wood, 11 substances are reported here for the first time as odour-active compounds in wood, amongst them heptanoic acid, g-octalactone, d-nonalactone and (E,Z,Z)-trideca-2,4,7-trienal.
  • Publication
  • Publication
    Smells of a modern world - Nachweis und Identifizierung von Geruchsstoffen in Rohstoffen für Produkte des täglichen Bedarfs
    ( 2017)
    Bauer, Patrick
    ;
    ;
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    Strangl, Miriam
    ;
    Wiedmer, Christoph
    ;
    Buettner, Andrea
  • Publication
    Characterization of Odorants in Wood
    ( 2017)
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    Ghadiriasli, Rahil
    ;
    Bauer, P.
  • Publication
    Odorants in non-food products - is there more to them than just smell?
    ( 2017)
    Buettner, Andrea
    ;
    Bauer, Patrick
    ;
    ; ;
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    Strangl, Miriam
    ;
    Wiedmer, Christoph
  • Publication
    Identification of odorants in wood of Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin by aroma extract dilution analysis and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry
    ( 2017)
    Schreiner, Linda
    ;
    Loos, Helene M.
    ;
    Buettner, Andrea
    General emissions of volatile organic compounds from wood are well investigated, but only limited information is available on the odor-active substances contained therein. To close this gap, we aimed at specifically elucidating the odorous constituents of wood from incense cedar [Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin]; this material is commonly used for the production of a range of products such as pencils and interior accessories. Targeted odorant analysis requires specialized techniques combining modern odorant analytical tools with human-sensory evaluation. Following this concept, the odor profile of the wood sample was first evaluated by human-sensory analyses. Then, the most potent wood odorants were characterized by means of gas chromatography-olfactometry and ranked according to their odor potency via aroma extract dilution analysis. With use of this approach, more than 60 odorous substances were detected, and the 22 most potent odorants were successfully identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry. Among the main odorants found were a series of terpenes, several degradation products of fatty acids, and a number of odorants with a phenolic core moiety. Five odorants are reported here for the first time as wood odorants, such as g-octalactone and 3-phenylpropanoic acid; thymoquinone was demonstrated for the first time to have a pencil-like odor quality.