Publications Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 37
  • Publication
    Environmental impacts of carbon capture and utilization by mineral carbonation
    ( 2022)
    Thonemann, Nils
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    Zacharopoulos, Leon
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    Fromme, Felix
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    Mineral carbonation technologies are associated with the concept of Carbon (dioxide) capture, utilization, and storage and rely on the mineralization reaction, which can be observed in nature. In order to overcome the slow natural reaction rates, diverse pathways are studied to sequester carbon dioxide into mineral products. However, studies that perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) on mineral carbonation are poorly comparable due to differences in the assessment methodology. A two-step approach is applied to report on and overcome this issue. First, a qualitative analysis based on a systematic literature review of 29 relevant articles was conducted. Second, a meta analysis with harmonized methodological assumptions was applied to assess which of the proposed ex-situ carbonation routes in literature has the lowest environmental impacts (16 different impact categories assessed). The qualitative literature review demonstrates that the most critical difference of the published LCAs on mineral carbonation technologies is handling multifunctional processes, as this parameter influences the result of an LCA. Since none of the assessed studies evaluated the technology readiness level (TRL) of the investigated technology, a TRL estimation based on the studies' descriptive information, ranging from 2 to 6, was provided. This is reflected in the predominant usage of laboratory or simulated data as the primary data source. The main finding of the meta analysis in terms of global warming and the impact category minerals and metals is that direct aqueous carbonation, carbonation mixing, and carbonation curing show negative values in those impact categories despite the deployed scenario. Hence, these three mineral carbonation technologies seem to be most promising. However, it could be demonstrated that other impact categories show positive results. In the case of indirect aqueous carbonation, it depends on the substitution credit assumed whether this pathway acts as a climate mitigation pathway.
  • Publication
    The resource potential of mine waste - more than metal concentrations
    ( 2020)
    Büttner, Philipp
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    Engelhardt, Jonathan
    In the last decade, several national and European funding programs addressed the resource potential of mine wastes (including tailings and metallurgical slag dumps), with a clear focus on the development of new sources for critical raw materials (CRM). The European Commission defined CRMs as highly important for the European high tech industry. European and national resource strategies refer to this definition and include the development of new CRM sources as one of their main objectives. The German Federal Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF) funded the program ""r3 -strategic metals and minerals - innovative technologies for resource efficiency"" that started in 2012. The aim of the program was to ensure the domestic supply of strategically significant metals and minerals. Suitable projects had to act in the fields of recycling and substitution of raw materials as well as in the field of reduced material consumption. Urban mining and the evaluation of resource efficiency were further topics that suited the program. The Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology (HIF) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) worked already together in different projects about mine waste characterization and resource extraction in r3.The Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology pursues the objective of developing innovative technologies for the economy so that mineral and metalliferous raw materials become more available, undergo highly efficient processes and recycle in an environmentally friendly manner. As a part of the national strategy for raw materials in 2011, the German government initiated the HIF. It is a constituent part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and works in close collaboration with TU Bergakademie Freiberg. The HIF is a core member of the European EIT RawMaterials network, having played a decisive role in its establishment. Fraunhofer UMSICHT is a pioneer for sustainable energy and raw materials management by supplying and transferring scientific results into companies, society and politics. The dedicated UMSICHT team researches and develops, together with partners, sustainable products, processes and services. Together with industry and public partners, such as the Geological Survey of Germany (BGR), UMSICHT and HIF founded the r³-mine-waste-cluster in order to determine a realistic mine waste potential for Germany and give a reliable resource estimation for secondary raw materials. Nowadays, however, there is a political and public interest beyond the potential of valuable metals from mine wastes. After the catastrophic tailings accident in Vales Corrego do Feijão mine, Brazil, the social pressure to lower these risks raised on the mining industry, on the mine waste owners (e.g. states) and on the politics. With the new Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management a new set of guidelines was developed in order to avoid these accidents in the future. ""The International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) share a commitment to the adoption of global best practices on tailings storage facilities. They have co-convened this global tailings review to establish an international standard."" Their environmental risks and at the same time their high potential as a source for (critical) raw materials make mine waste projects a complex exercise. There is a need for solutions that respect environmental, technical, civil and economic issues and provide holistic and sustainable approaches. In order to validating and adjusting different approaches, the HIF coordinates the recomine-alliance. Local stakeholders representing environmental, technical, scientific, governmental and civil institutions assemble in recomine for a development of holistic mine waste solutions for a worldwide application.
  • Publication
    Untersuchung des Einflusses technologischer Innovationen auf Stoffströme am Beispiel von Vanadium für Redox-Flow-Batterien
    ( 2020) ; ;
    Deike, Rüdiger
    Vanadium wird aktuell hauptsächlich in Eisen- und in Nichteisen-Legierungen als Legierungselement genutzt. Eine potenziell relevante neue Anwendung für das Element ist die Nutzung als aktives Material in Redox-Flow-Batteriespeichern. Die Dissertation betrachtet die Gewinnung eines Vanadiumelektrolyten aus dem bei der Titandioxidproduktion mittels Sulfatverfahren anfallenden Filtersalzes des Dünnsäurerecyclings. Auf Grundlage der Arbeitshypothese der Marktverfügbarkeit wird die technologische Innovation mittels eines qualitativen und eines quantitativen Stoffstrommodells, einer Szenarioanalyse und eines fiktiven Modellstandorts der Titandioxidproduktion auf seinen Einfluss auf das anthropogene Vanadiumstoffstromsystem untersucht. Die Szenario- und Stoffstromanalyse identifiziert den Stoffstrom und das Gewinnungsverfahren als Verbreiterung der Rohstoffbasis, die zur Deckung des VRFB-Speicherbedarfs beitragen kann, ohne Zielkonflikte mit bestehenden Vanadium-Anwendungen hervorzurufen.
  • Publication
    Herstellung und ökologische Bewertung von Porenbeton auf Sekundärrohstoffbasis
    Im Rahmen des Projekts ""BauCycle"" haben die Fraunhofer Institute IBP, IOSB, UMSICHT und IML sowohl Technologien zur Sortierung von Bauschutt erprobt als auch Anwendungsoptionen und Demonstrationsprodukte mit Sekundärrohstoffeinsatz entwickelt. Dabei war der Baustoff Porenbeton einer der gesetzten Schwerpunkte. Im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes wurde der Ansatz aufgegriffen, den primären Sand in der Porenbetonherstellung anteilig durch feinkörnigen Bauschutt zu ersetzen. Bauschutt ist eine inhomogene Mischung aus meist mineralischen Bestandteilen und scheint im Hinblick auf die chemische Zusammensetzung potentiell geeignet um für die Herstellung von Porenbeton verwendet zu werden. Prinzipiell konnte der Nachweis erbracht werden, dass feinkörniger Bauschutt als Rohstoff für die Herstellung technisch anspruchsvoller Bauprodukte wie Porenbeton verwendet werden kann. Durch eine Betrachtung des Carbon Footprints konnte zudem ein Vorteil des Sandersatzes quantifiziert werden. So konnten rund 12 % der Treibhausgasemssionen gegenüber der herkömmlichen Gewinnung der Rohstoffe eingespart werden. Die Berechnungen zeigen, dass schon bei dem Einsatz von 50 % Sandersatz 38 kg CO2-Äq. pro m3 Porenbeton eingespart werden können.
  • Publication
    Re-mining of mine wastes in Germany
    ( 2019)
    Büttner, Philipp
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    Meima, Jeannette
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    Gutzmer, Jens
    The Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology and the Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology (HIF) have together compiled a mine waste cadaster for Germany on behalf of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). For this purpose, a wide variety of data sources was evaluated with the aim to create a national database able to provide an overview about the content of critical raw materials (CRM) in mine waste repositories in Germany. Yet, even though mine wastes containing economically significant amounts of CRM, re-mining these anthropogenic ""ore bodies"" faces considerable technical and non-technical challenges. Mine wastes often create environmental problems, such as acid rock drainage with associated high sulfate and heavy metal concentrations. This creates societal pressure for remediation. Remediation, however, is usually achieved by covering the surface with a water impermeable layer, an approach that is not sustainable, because of the required follow-up care and the inaccessibility of the resources that remain contained in the mine wastes. Besides that, legislative barriers are in conflict with recovering CRM and other metals and minerals from historic mine wastes. Many sites have essentially been abandoned since mining ceased in the 20th century. High metal contents and acidity released during sulfide oxidation has facilitated the establishment of a very specific flora and fauna. Species on these sites are often rare and strictly protected by environmental legislation. Metal recovery is all but impossible from such sites, despite the fact that acid rock drainage from these sites leads to environmental degradation downstream from the mine waste site. Another important aspect is the general lack of suitable beneficiation and metallurgical infrastructure in Germany. Large capital investment would thus be necessary to enable the recovery of strategic metals from historic mine waste. Even if high metal concentrations are present in some mine wastes, small volumes will render the set-up of large, stationary plants unfeasible. Instead, flexible and semi-mobile small-scale technologies need to be developed. Such technologies are, at present, not available on the market. To work at the intersection of society, legislation, remediation and re-mining is the aim of the new rECOmine partnership. This partnership is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for the next five years within the WIR! Program. It will be coordinated by HIF and build up three test sites in Saxony to develop combined remediation and re-mining technologies under real conditions with local partners.
  • Publication
    Aufbereitung und Verwertungsmöglichkeiten für feinkörnigen Bauschutt <2 mm
    ( 2018) ; ;
    Wolfram, Daniela
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    Dörmann, Joseph
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    Das Fraunhofer interne Projekt BauCycle hat sich als Ziel gesetzt, für die heute nichtnutzbaren Feinfraktionen mineralischer Bauabfälle neue und wirtschaftlich attraktive Verwertungsoptionen zu entwickeln. Aufgrund der stofflichen Heterogenität und den mit der Feinkörnigkeit verbundenen technischen und sicherheitsseitigen Herausforderungen dieses Stoffstroms sind Aufereitungstechniken, Logistikkonzepte und Produktinnovationen erforderlich, die deutlich über den heutigen Stand hinausgehen. Nur so kann aus der heutigen Problemfraktion in Zukunft ein echter Wertstoff werden. Die in diesem Vorhaben adressierte Rückführung feinkörniger Abfallfraktionen in die Produktion ist für eine ressourceneffziente und nachhaltige Rohstoffwirtschaft eine der wichtigsten Herausforderungen. Gelingt dies nicht, so bleibt die Idee der Kreislaufwirtschaft eine Utopie.