Publications Search Results

Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
  • Publication
    Simulation of viscoelastic squeeze flows for adhesive joining applications
    ( 2022)
    Ingelsten, S.
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    Mark, A.
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    Kádár, R.
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    Edelvik, F.
    A backwards-tracking Lagrangian-Eulerian method is used to simulate planar viscoelastic squeeze flow. The momentum and continuity equations are discretized with the finite volume method and implicit immersed boundary conditions are used to describe objects in the domain. The viscoelastic squeeze flow, which involves moving solid geometry as well as free surface flow, is chosen for its relevance in industrial applications, such as adhesive parts assembly and hemming. The main objectives are to validate the numerical method for such flows and to outline the grid resolution dependence of important flow quantities. The main part of the study is performed with the Oldroyd-B model, for which the grid dependence is assessed over a wide range of Weissenberg numbers. An important conclusion is that the load exerted on the solids can be predicted with reasonable accuracy using a relatively coarse grid. Furthermore, the results are found to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions as well as in qualitative resemblance with numerical results from the literature. The effects of different viscoelastic properties are further investigated using the PTT model, revealing a strong influence of shear-thinning for moderate Weissenberg numbers. Finally, a reverse squeeze flow is simulated, highlighting important aspects in the context of adhesive joining applications.
  • Publication
    A hydrodynamic basis for off-axis Brownian diffusion under intermediate confinements in micro-channels
    ( 2021)
    Kannan, A.S.
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    Mark, A.
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    Maggiolo, D.
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    Sardina, G.
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    Sasic, S.
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    Ström, H.
    The mobility of a Brownian particle diffusing in a micro-channel is heterogeneous and spatially dependent on the surrounding hydrodynamic resistance fields. The positional asymmetry of such a diffusing particle leads to anisotropies in the observed diffusive behavior. In this paper, we probe such directionally varying diffusive behavior of a spherical nanoparticle diffusing at a location off-set from the centerline of a square micro-channel in a quiescent fluid. This investigation is carried out over varying degrees of intermediate hydrodynamic confinements. A coupled Langevin-immersed boundary method is used for these assessments. We observe that the co-axial diffusivity may be slightly enhanced during off-axis hindered diffusion when compared with a corresponding centerline diffusive behavior. We attribute this increased particle diffusivity to a reduced co-axial fluid resistance through a hydrodynamic basis derived using steady-state CFD solutions to the corresponding Stokes problem. For co-axial motion, the particle creates a recirculating flow pattern around itself when moving along the centerline, whereas it drags along the fluid in between itself and the wall when in close proximity to the latter. These contrasting flow behaviors are responsible for the unexpected enhancement of the co-axial diffusivity for some off-axis positions under intermediate hydrodynamic confinements.
  • Publication
    A numerical multiscale method for fiber networks
    ( 2021)
    Görtz, M.
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    Kettil, G.
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    Målqvist, A.
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    Mark, A.
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    Edelvik, F.
    Fiber network modeling can be used for studying mechanical properties of paper [1]. The individual fibers and the bonds in-between constitute a detailed representation of the material. However, detailed microscale fiber network models must be resolved with efficient numerical methods. In this work, a numerical multiscale method for discrete network models is proposed that is based on the localized orthogonal decomposition method [4]. The method is ideal for these network problems, because it reduces the maximum size of the problem, it is suitable for parallelization, and it can effectively solve fracture propagation. The problem analyzed in this work is the nodal displacement of a fiber network given an applied load. This problem is formulated as a linear system that is solved by using the aforementioned multiscale method. To solve the linear system, the multiscale method constructs a low-dimensional solution space with good approximation properties [5, 2]. The method i s observed to work well for unstructured fiber networks, with optimal rates of convergence obtainable for highly localized configurations of the method.
  • Publication
    The Knudsen Paradox in Micro-Channel Poiseuille Flows with a Symmetric Particle
    ( 2021)
    Kannan, A.S.
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    Narahari, T.S.B.
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    Bharadhwaj, Y.
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    Mark, A.
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    Sardina, G.
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    Maggiolo, D.
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    Sasic, S.
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    Ström, H.
    The Knudsen paradox-the non-monotonous variation of mass-flow rate with the Knudsen number-is a unique and well-established signature of micro-channel rarefied flows. A particle which is not of insignificant size in relation to the duct geometry can significantly alter the flow behavior when introduced in such a system. In this work, we investigate the effects of a stationary particle on a micro-channel Poiseuille flow, from continuum to free-molecular conditions, using the direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method. We establish a hydrodynamic basis for such an investigation by evaluating the flow around the particle and study the blockage effect on the Knudsen paradox. Our results show that with the presence of a particle this paradoxical behavior is altered. The effect is more significant as the particle becomes large and results from a shift towards relatively more ballistic molecular motion at shorter geometrical distances. The need to account for combinations of local and non-local transport effects in modeling reactive gas-solid flows in confined geometries at the nano-scale and in nanofabrication of model pore systems is discussed in relation to these results.
  • Publication
    Assessment of hindered diffusion in arbitrary geometries using a multiphase DNS framework
    ( 2021)
    Kannan, A.S.
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    Mark, A.
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    Maggiolo, D.
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    Sardina, G.
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    Sasic, S.
    ;
    Ström, H.
    The hydrodynamics around a Brownian particle has a noticeable impact on its hindered diffusion in arbitrary geometries (such as channels/pores) due to reduced mobility close to walls. These effects are difficult to describe at sub-pore scales, wherein a complete analytical solution of the underlying hydrodynamics is challenging to obtain. Here, we propose a coupled Langevin-multiphase direct numerical simulation (DNS) framework, that fully resolves the hydrodynamics in such systems and consequently provides an on-the-fly capability to probe local instantaneous particle diffusivities. We validate and establish the capabilities of this framework in square micro-channels (under varying degrees of hydrodynamic confinement) and in an arbitrary pore. Our results show that directional variations in mean-squared displacements, velocity auto-correlation functions and diffusivities of the Brownian particle, due to inherent asymmetries in the geometry are adequately captured. Further, a local anisotropy in the hydrodynamic resistances along the co-axial direction of the channel is also noted.
  • Publication
    A Backwards-Tracking Lagrangian-Eulerian Method for Viscoelastic Two-Fluid Flows
    ( 2021)
    Ingelsten, S.
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    Mark, A.
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    Kádár, R.
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    Edelvik, F.
    A new Lagrangian-Eulerian method for the simulation of viscoelastic free surface flow is proposed. The approach is developed from a method in which the constitutive equation for viscoelastic stress is solved at Lagrangian nodes, which are convected by the flow, and interpolated to the Eulerian grid with radial basis functions. In the new method, a backwards-tracking methodology is employed, allowing for fixed locations for the Lagrangian nodes to be chosen a priori. The proposed method is also extended to the simulation of viscoelastic free surface flow with the volume of fluid method. No unstructured interpolation or node redistribution is required with the new approach. Furthermore, the total amount of Lagrangian nodes is significantly reduced when compared to the original Lagrangian-Eulerian method. Consequently, the method is more computationally efficient and robust. No additional stabilization technique, such as both-sides diffusion or reformulation of the constitutive equation, is necessary. A validation is performed with the analytic solution for transient and steady planar Poiseuille flow, with excellent results. Furthermore, the proposed method agrees well with numerical data from the literature for the viscoelastic die swell flow of an Oldroyd-B model. The capabilities to simulate viscoelastic free surface flow are also demonstrated through the simulation of a jet buckling case.
  • Publication
    Simulation of jet printing of solder paste for surface mounted technology
    ( 2021)
    Mårtensson, G.E.
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    Göhl, J.
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    Mark, A.
    Purpose The purpose of this study is to propose a novel simulation framework and show that it captures the main effects of the deposition process, such as droplet shape, volume and speed. Design/methodology/approach In the framework, the time-dependent flow and the fluid-structure interaction between the suspension, the moving piston and the deflection of the jetting head is simulated. The system is modelled as a two-phase system with the surrounding air being one phase and the dense suspension the other. The non-Newtonian suspension is modelled as a mixed single phase with properties determined from material testing. The simulations were performed with two coupled in-house solvers developed at Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre; IBOFlow, a multiphase flow solver; and LaStFEM, a large strain FEM solver. Experimental deposition was performed with a commercial jet printer and quantitative measurements were made with optical profilometry. Findings Jetting behaviour was shown to be affected by not only piston motion, fluid rheology and head deformation but also the viscous energy loss in the jetting head nozzle. The simulation results were compared to experimental data obtained from an industrial jetting head and found to match characteristic lengths, speed and volume within ca 10%. Research limitations/implications The simulations are based on a rheological description using the Carreau model that does not include a time-dependent relaxation of the fluid. This modelling approach limits the descriptive nature of the deposit after impact on the substrate. The simulation also adopts a continuum approach to the suspension, which will not accurately model the break-off of the droplet filament under the characteristic diameter of the particles in the suspension. Practical implications The ability to accurately simulate the deposition of functional materials will enable the efficient development of novel product designs with a minimum of used resources and minimised product development duration. Social implications The ability to accurately simulate the deposition of functional materials will enable the efficient development of novel product designs with a minimum of used resources and therefore an improvement from a sustainability perspective. The ability to plan deposition strategies virtually will also enable a decrease in consumables at manufacturers which will in turn decrease their carbon foot print. Originality/value While basic fluid dynamic simulations have been performed to simulate flow through nozzles, the ability to include both fluid-structure interaction and multiphase capability together with a more accurate rheological description of the suspension and with a substrate for surface mount applications has not been published to the knowledge of the authors.
  • Publication
    Numerical upscaling of discrete network models
    ( 2020)
    Kettil, G.
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    Målqvist, A.
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    Mark, A.
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    Fredlund, M.
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    Wester, K.
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    Edelvik, F.
    In this paper a numerical multiscale method for discrete networks is presented. The method gives an accurate coarse scale representation of the full network by solving sub-network problems. The method is used to solve problems with highly varying connectivity or random network structure, showing optimal order convergence rates with respect to the mesh size of the coarse representation. Moreover, a network model for paper-based materials is presented. The numerical multiscale method is applied to solve problems governed by the presented network model.
  • Publication
    Computationally efficient viscoelastic flow simulation using a Lagrangian-Eulerian method and GPU-acceleration
    ( 2020)
    Ingelsten, S.
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    Mark, A.
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    Jareteg, K.
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    Kádár, R.
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    Edelvik, F.
    A recently proposed Lagrangian-Eulerian method for viscoelastic flow simulation is extended to high performance calculations on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The two most computationally intensive parts of the algorithm are implemented for GPU calculation, namely the integration of the viscoelastic constitutive equation at the Lagrangian nodes and the interpolation of the resulting stresses to the cell centers of the Eulerian grid. In the original CPU method, the constitutive equations are integrated with a second order backward differentiation formula, while with the proposed GPU method the implicit Euler method is used. To allow fair comparison, the latter is also implemented for the CPU. The methods are validated for two flows, a planar Poiseuille flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid and flow past a confined cylinder of a four-mode Phan Thien Tanner fluid, with identical results. The calculation times for the methods are compared for a range of grid resolut ions and numbers of CPU threads, revealing a significant reduction of the calculation time for the proposed GPU method. As an example, the total simulation time is roughly halved compared to the original CPU method. The integration of the constitutive equation itself is reduced by a factor 50 to 250 and the unstructured stress interpolation by a factor 15 to 60, depending on the number of CPU threads used.
  • Publication
    Investigating the sensitivity of particle size distribution on part geometry in additive manufacturing
    ( 2020)
    Sagar, V.R.
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    Lorin, S.
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    Göhl, J.
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    Quist, J.
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    Cromvik, C.
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    Mark, A.
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    Jareteg, K.
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    Edelvik, F.
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    Wärmefjord, K.
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    Söderberg, R.
    Selective laser melting process is a powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process that finds applications in aerospace and medical industries for its ability to produce complex geometry parts. As the raw material used is in powder form, particle size distribution (PSD) is a significant characteristic that influences the build quality in turn affecting the functionality and aesthetics aspects of the end product. This paper investigates the effect of PSD on deformation for 316L stainless steel powder, where three coupled in-house simulation tools based on Discrete Element Method (DEM), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and Structural Mechanics are employed. DEM is used for simulating the powder distribution based on the different particle size distribution of the powder. The CFD is used as a virtual test bed to determine thermal parameters such as density, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the powder bed viewed as a continuum. The values found as a stochastic function of the powder distribution is used to test the sensitivity of the melted zone and distortion using Structural Mechanics. Results showed significant influence of particle size distribution on the packing density, surface height, surface roughness, the stress state and displacement of the melted zone. The results will serve as a catalyst in developing geometry assurance strategies to minimize the effect of particle size distribution on the geometric quality of the printed part.