Now showing 1 - 10 of 119
  • Publication
    The immunome of soy bean allergy: Comprehensive identification and characterization of epitopes
    ( 2019) ;
    Havenith, Heide
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    Rautenberger, Paul
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    Fischer, Markus
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    Aurich, Stefanie
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    Treudler, Regina
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    Background: The precise mapping of multiple antibody epitopes recognized by patients' sera allows a more detailed and differentiated understanding of immuno-logical diseases. It may lead to the development of novel therapies and diagnostic tools. Objective: Mapping soy bean specific epitopes relevant for soy bean allergy patients and persons sensitized to soy bean, and analysis of their IgE/IgG binding spectrum. Methods: Identification of epitopes using sera, applying an optimized peptide phage display library followed by next‐generation sequencing, specially designed in silico data analysis and subsequent peptide microarray analysis. Results: We were able to identify more than 400 potential epitope motifs in soybean proteins. More than 60% of them have not yet been described as potential epitopes. Eighty‐three peptides, representing the 42 most frequently found epitope candidates, were validated by microarray analysis using 50 sera from people who have been tested positive in skin prick test (SPT). Of these peptides, 56 were bound by antibodies, 55 by serum IgE, 43 by serum IgG and 30 by both. Person‐specific epitope patterns were found for each individual and protein. Conclusions: For individuals with clinical symptoms, epitope resolved analyses reveal a high prevalence of IgE binding to a few soy bean specific epitopes. Evaluation of individual immune profiles of patients with soy bean sensitization allows the identification of peptides that do facilitate studying individual IgE/ IgG epitope binding patterns. This enables discrimination of sensitization from disease, such assay test has the potential to replace SPT assays.
  • Publication
    Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment
    ( 2015)
    Ortiz-Espín, Ana
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    Locato, Vittoria
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    Camejo, Daymi
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    Gara, Laura de
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    Sevilla, Francisca
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    Jiménez, Ana
    Background and Aims: Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Methods: Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Key Results: Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. Conclusions: A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and antioxidants were less extended after the oxidative treatment. It is concluded that PsTrxo1 transformation protects TBY-2 cells from exogenous H2O2, thus increasing their viability via a process in which not only antioxidants but also Trxo1 seem to be involved.
  • Publication
    Antibody-mediated resistance against plant pathogens
    ( 2011)
    Safarnejad, M.R.
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    Jouzani, G.S.
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    Tabatabaie, M.
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    Twyman, R.M.
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    Plant diseases have a significant impact on the yield and quality of crops. Many strategies have been developed to combat plant diseases, including the transfer of resistance genes to crops by conventional breeding. However, resistance genes can only be introgressed from sexually-compatible species, so breeders need alternative measures to introduce resistance traits from more distant sources. In this context, genetic engineering provides an opportunity to exploit diverse and novel forms of resistance, e.g. the use of recombinant antibodies targeting plant pathogens. Native antibodies, as a part of the vertebrate adaptive immune system, can bind to foreign antigens and eliminate them from the body. The ectopic expression of antibodies in plants can also interfere with pathogen activity to confer disease resistance. With sufficient knowledge of the pathogen life cycle, it is possible to counter any disease by designing expression constructs so that pathogen-specific anti bodies accumulate at high levels in appropriate sub-cellular compartments. Although first developed to tackle plant viruses and still used predominantly for this purpose, antibodies have been targeted against a diverse range of pathogens as well as proteins involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Here we comprehensively review the development and implementation of antibody-mediated disease resistance in plants.
  • Publication
    Energiewende Nordhessen
    (Grin Verlag, 2015)
    Sommer, Carsten
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    Ebert, Thorsten
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    Saighani, Assadollah
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    Jungermann, Markus
    Aufbauend auf den beiden Studien ""Energiewende Nordhessen - Szenarien für den Umbau der Stromversorgung auf eine dezentrale und erneuerbare Erzeugungsstruktur"" (Henke et al., 2012) und ""Energiewende Nordhessen - technische und ökonomische Verknüpfung des regionalen Strom- und Wärmemarktes"" (Henke et al., 2013) wird in der vorliegenden Studie der regionale Verkehrssektor im Gebiet der Stadtwerke Union Nordhessen (nachfolgend SUN-Region genannt) untersucht. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie ist es, den verkehrsbedingten Energieverbrauch und die verkehrsbedingten CO2-Emissionen in der SUN-Region im Status quo (Analysejahr 2010) und für das Jahr 2030 abzuschätzen. Hierzu wurde ein Modell erstellt, das die wesentlichen Einflussfaktoren auf Energieverbrauch und CO2-Emissionen abbildet, verfügbare Daten nutzt und prognosefähig ist. Für die Prognose im Jahr 2030 wurden in Abstimmung mit dem Auftraggeber zwei Szenarien (Trend- und Alternativszenario) definiert. Zudem wird untersucht, inwieweit neben dem Strom- und Wärmemarkt auch der Verkehrsmarkt mit regionalen, erneuerbaren Energien versorgt werden kann. Mit Vorlage dieses Berichtes liegen damit zu allen wesentlichen Energiesektoren (Strom, Wärme und Verkehr) Ergebnisse zur Deckung des Energieverbrauchs und zu den CO2-Emissionen vor.
  • Publication
    Development of roadmaps for cost minimisation of titanium machining for aerospace applications
    ( 2012)
    Dimitrov, Dimitri
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    Schmidt, Gerhard
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    Treunicht, N.
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    Blaine, D.
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    Saxer, M.
    In order to fulfil the high demands of their later applications, products in aerospace industry are usually highly sophisticated with regards to their geometry and material choice. Despite difficulties in the manufacturing process chains the functionality of parts is put in the foreground. This paper discusses latest results of a large collaborative project aiming at systematic research towards an efficient utilisation of the High Performance Cutting (HPC) technology, focusing hereby on the machining of titanium alloys as the material holding the key to mass saving and ultimately emissions reduction. Using a number of demonstrators, representative for a certain class of aerospace structural components, as an experimental base, the impact of selected lubrication and cooling techniques, milling strategies and cutting tool materials on the tool wear phenomena was studied. An additional research aspect was the influence of 5-axis milling on the machining cycle. The machinability of components made from powder material was investigated too. In this way the targeted cost optimisation and lead time shortening can be modelled and practically achieved.
  • Publication
    Tackling heterogeneity: A leaf disc-based assay for the high-throughput screening of transient gene expression in tobacco
    ( 2012)
    Piotrzkowski, Natalia
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    Transient Agrobacterium-mediated gene expression assays for Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) are frequently used because they facilitate the comparison of multiple expression constructs regarding their capacity for maximum recombinant protein production. However, for three model proteins, we found that recombinant protein accumulation (rpa) was significantly influenced by leaf age and leaf position effects. The ratio between the highest and lowest amount of protein accumulation (max/min ratio) was found to be as high as 11. Therefore, construct-based impacts on the rpa level that are less than 11-fold will be masked by background noise. To address this problem, we developed a leaf disc-based screening assay and infiltration device that allows the rpa level in a whole tobacco plant to be reliably and reproducibly determined. The prototype of the leaf disc infiltration device allows 14 Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration events to be conducted in parallel. As shown for three model proteins, the average max/min rpa ratio was reduced to 1.4 using this method, which allows for a sensitive comparison of different genetic elements affecting recombinant protein expression.
  • Patent
    Nucampholin nucleic acid molecules to control coleopteran insect pests
    ( 2016) ; ;
    Narva, Kenneth E.
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    Gandra, Premchand
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    Worden, Sarah E.
    This disclosure concerns nucleic acid molecules and methods of use thereof for control of insect pests through RNA interference-mediated inhibition of target coding and transcribed non-coding sequences in insect pests, including coleopteran pests. The disclosure also concerns methods for making transgenic plants that express nucleic acid molecules useful for the control of insect pests, and the plant cells and plants obtained thereby
  • Publication
    Produktionstechnische Handlungsfelder zur ressourcen-effizienten Fertigung von Powertrain-Komponenten
    Die politische Forderung nach einer Reduzierung des Energieverbrauchs und die wirtschaftliche Notwendigkeit ressourceneffizient hergestellter Produkte sind wesentliche Treiber für die Entwicklung innovativer Prozesse und Technologien. Gerade auf dem Gebiet der Automobilproduktion sind verbunden mit dem anhaltenden Trend der Elektrifizierung des Antriebsstrangs energie- und ressourceneffiziente Lösungen gefragt. Zentrale Themen sind dabei das Downsizing von Motoren, der Leichtbau, Reibungsminimierung und mit zunehmender Bedeutung das akustische Design. Anhand der Prozesskette zur Herstellung von Zahnrädern und der Endbearbeitung von Nockenwellen werden die Potenziale zur Energie- und Ressourceneinsparung in der Produktion und die damit einhergehenden Entwicklungsrichtungen für zukünftige Produktionssysteme beispielhaft aufgezeigt.
  • Publication
    Insektenbiotechnologie: Insekten als Ressource
    Unter Insektenbiotechnologie versteht man die Entwicklung und Anwendung von biotechnologischen Methoden, um Insekten bzw. von diesen stammende Moleküle, Zellen, Organe oder assoziierte Mikroorganismen als Produkte oder Dienstleistungen für Anwendungen in der Medizin, im Pflanzenschutz oder in der Industrie nutzbar zu machen. Dieses auch als Gelbe Biotechnologie bekannt gewordene ""Emerging Field"" verfolgt konsequent transnationale Forschungsansätze mit beachtlichen Wertschöpfungspotenzialen. Der Institutsteil Bioressourcen im Fraunhofer Institut für Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Ökologie (IME) gehört zu den weltweit führenden Forschungseinrichtungen in der Insektenbiotechnologie. Hier werden Technologie-Plattformen etabliert, mit denen systematisch Naturstoffe und Enzyme aus Insekten identifiziert, charakterisiert und einer Nutzung zugänglich gemacht werden. Weiterhin werden dort innovative Technologien für die Nutzung von Insekten zur Biokonversion von organischen Abfällen in wertvolle Rohstoffe erarbeitet. Darüber hinaus werden am Gießener Fraunhofer-Standort biologische und biotechnische Verfahren zur nachhaltigen und umweltschonenden Kontrolle von Schadund Vektorinsekten entwickelt.
  • Patent
    MELLEOLIDE-BIOSYNTHESIS GENE CLUSTER AND ITS APPLICATION
    ( 2015) ;
    Engels, Benedikt
    WO15104051A1 [EN] The present invention relates to newly identified genes that can be employed in the production of hydroxylated protoilludenes and/or sesquiterpenoid protoilludene-type aryl esters. The present invention accordingly relates to the nucleotide sequences, a host microorganism that has been transformed with the nucleotide sequences and to methods employing the transformed microorganism.