How to Display Vehicle Information to Users of Automated Vehicles when Conducting Non-Driving-Related Activities
Automated vehicles (AVs) are expected to enable users to engage in non-driving-related activities (NDRAs). However, users do not easily trust an automated vehicle which poses new challenges for automotive human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Over-presenting vehicle information can distract users from NDRAs, and under-presentation can impact trust and user experience (UX) negatively. To investigate how to best present vehicle information to foster users' trust and UX while performing NDRAs, we designed two in-vehicle HMI concepts: 1) A colored and animated light bar display around the windshield and 2) a windshield display interface presenting pictograms and numbers. Results from a simulator study ($N=18$) indicate that both concepts contribute to a high trust level and UX while not affecting the NDRA performance compared to the baseline of not showing vehicle information. In addition, the light bar provides better UX than the windshield display and is also preferred by users. With our findings, we contribute to the effective design of presenting vehicle information in automated vehicles.