Results of the Bifacial PV Cells and PV Modules Power Measurement Round Robin Activity of the PV-Enerate Project
Bifacial Photovoltaic (PV) technology is expected to acquire an increased market share of the solar PV industry in the future, due to the ability of bifacial PV modules to collect light from both the front and rear side, increasing the energy yield for a specific available area for a PV system. Accurate measurement procedures for bifacial products result in more accurate energy yield estimates, consequently improving the bankability of bifacial PV technology. This work aims to evaluate the procedures for the measurement of electrical power and bifacial parameters of bifacial solar devices, concerning to their applicability in calibration laboratories and production line environments. An intercomparison for bifacial PV cells and modules is carried out between nine different test laboratories across Europe, as part of the PV-Enerate project. The measurement procedures as described in IEC TS 60904-1-2:2019 are followed among the different test laboratories, to evaluate the applicability of these procedures. Three different types of bifacial PV cells and three different types of bifacial PV modules are measured. The intercomparison involves measurements with systems using both single and double-sided illumination conditions. The uncertainty budgets and systematic differences that these procedures result in between different laboratories are determined and discussed. Specific common mistakes are reported and improvements to the IEC TS 60904-1-2:2019 are proposed as a result of this intercomparison activity.