Photon management structures originated by interference lithography
Since micro- and nanostructures for photon management are of increasing importance in novel high efficiency solar cell concepts, structuring techniques with up-scaling potential play a key role for the realization of these concepts. Interference lithography is reviewed as a technology for the origination of fine-tailored two and three dimensional photonic structures on large areas. With the interference pattern of two or more coherent waves, a wide variety of structures can be generated on areas of up to 1.2 × 1.2 m2. In combination with subsequent microreplication steps, the industrially feasible production of elaborate structures is possible. After the review of the basic technology, three novel application examples are presented: (1) honeycomb structures for the front side texturization via nanoimprint lithography, (2) diffractive back side gratings for absorption enhancement in the spectral region near the band gap of silicon, and (3) three dimensional photonic crys tals as elements for visionary solar cell concepts including advanced light trapping schemes and luminescent processes.