Wirtschaftsnahe Forschungseinrichtungen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland unter besonderer Berücksichtigung struktureller Anpassungen in den neuen Bundesländern
The decline of industrial research in East Germany has reached dramatic proportions. Of the 75.000 researchers involved in industrial research at the beginning of 1990 - according to representative polls carried out at the beginning of October 1992 - at the most 15.000 are still present in the new federal states. The number of industrial researchers, compared with the old federal states, has reached a ratio of 1:15. Moreover, the market for industrially oriented R&D in Germany is overstaffed in many fields; it is also characterized by decreasing research contracts from industry and cut-backs in state promotion of industry-related research. With this background it is especially difficult for institutions of the public R&D infrastructure and R&D enterprises in East Germany to become established: in th face of extremely unfavourable starting conditions (disrupted relations to earlier partners in industry, lack of capital, insecurity about property rights, antiquated facilities, danger of losing qualified personnel) they are exposed, in spite of high performance capability and willingness, to extremely tough competition. In the meantime, many attempts, via both economic and technology policy, are being made to promote the public R&D infrastructure and the innovative capability of Eastern German firms. In the future the governments of the new federal states above all will have to bear special responsibility in this process. A glance at the variety of existing promotional measures which are provided by the federal state (Land) in the old federal states makes clear that East Germany has a lot of catching up to do, even though the governments of the new states are becoming increasingly active in this field.