Allergenic potential of platinum compounds.
Allergisierungspotential von Platinverbindungen
Apart from the antitumour agent cis-platinum and its analogues, the toxicological relevance of platinum is confirmed manly to some of its complex halide salts, which are some of the most potent sensitizers known. Symptoms of platinum-related allergy have been reported almost exclusively from occupational environments. With latency periods of a few weeks to several years, the incidence of allergic reactions was as high as 73 per cent some 40 years ago. Despite control measures and the setting of a treshold limit value of 2 Mg/m3, there is still a high risk of developing sensitivity to platinum salts. The underlying mechanism appears to be a type-1 response. Diagnosis is based mainly on the results of skin prick tests, which provide reproducible and reliable results. In-vitro tests, including the radioallergosorbent test and histamine release, are too nonspecific to be used for screening purposes. The potential health risk to the general population of exposure to platinum from emissions from car catalysts is discussed. There is at present no evidence that allergenic platinum compounds are emitted; however, further research should be done to clarify the potential health implications of increased amounts of platinum in our environment.
Immunotoxicity of Metals and Immunotoxicology