The contribution of vehicle-to-grid to balance fluctuating generation
Comparing different battery ageing approaches
This paper analyzes how energy throughput and depth of discharge- based battery ageing affects vehicle-to-grid operation of plug-in electric vehicles. Plug-in electric vehicles are discussed as a grid resource to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources, but their contribution to balance fluctuating generation strongly depends on battery ageing and costs to feed back electricity. Therefore, an electricity system scenario with a very high share of wind and solar generation for Germany 2030 is analyzed focusing on different battery cost scenarios and ageing assumptions for plug- in vehicle batteries. The agent-based approach used renders price-based control with vehicle specific dispatch decision possible. Hence, in dependence of the individual state of charge depth of discharge-based battery discharging costs and expected smart charging revenues can be calculated. The results indicate that depth of discharge- based battery ageing results in a more restrictive vehicle-to-grid operation that is substantially affected by the driving behavior. Over-all, vehicle-to-grid allows for increasing the contribution to balance fluctuating generation compared to load shifting only but encounters challenges in terms of costs and battery ageing.