Lupin Protein Isolate Structure Diversity in Frozen-Cast Foams: Effects of Transglutaminases and Edible Fats
This study addresses an innovative approach to generate aerated foods with appealing texture through the utilization of lupin protein isolate (LPI) in combination with edible fats. We show the impact of transglutaminases (TGs; SB6 and commercial), glycerol (Gly), soy lecithin (Lec) and linoleic acid (LA) on the micro- and nanostructure of health promoting solid foods created from LPI and fats blends. 3-D tomographic images of LPI with TG revealed that SB6 contributed to an exceptional bubble spatial organization. The inclusion of Gly and Lec decreased protein polymerization and also induced the formation of a porous layered material. LA promoted protein polymerization and formation of homogeneous thick layers in the LPI matrix. Thus, the LPI is a promising protein resource which when in blend with additives is able to create diverse food structures. Much focus has been placed on the great foamability of LPI and here we show the resulting microstructure of LPI foams, and how these were improved with addition of TGs. New food applications for LPI can arise with the addition of food grade dispersant Lec and essential fatty-acid LA, by improved puffiness, and their contributing as replacer of chemical leavening additives in gluten-free products.