Linking Expansion Behaviour of Extruded Potato Starch/Rapeseed Press Cake Blends to Rheological and Technofunctional Properties
In order to valorise food by-products into healthy and sustainable products, extrusion technology can be used. Thereby, a high expansion rate is often a targeted product property. Rapeseed press cake (RPC) is a protein- and fibre-rich side product of oil pressing. Although there is detailed knowledge about the expansion mechanism of starch, only a few studies describe the influence of press cake addition on the expansion and the physical quality of the extruded products. This study assessed the effect of RPC inclusion on the physical and technofunctional properties of starch-containing directly expanded products. The effect of starch type (native and waxy), RPC level (10, 40, 70 g/100 g), extrusion moisture content (24, 29 g/100 g) and barrel temperature (20-140 °C) on expansion, hardness, water absorption, and solubility of the extrudates and extruder response was evaluated. At temperatures above 120 °C, 70 g/100 g of RPC increased the sectional and volumetric expansion of extrudates, irrespective of starch type. Since expansion correlates with the rheological properties of the melt, RPC and RPC/starch blends were investigated pre- and postextrusion in a closed cavity rheometer at extrusion-like conditions. It was shown that with increasing RPC level the complex viscosity |ƞ*| of extruded starch/RPC blends increased, which could be linked to expansion behaviour.