Passive load-deformation properties of human temporal muscle
The passive load-deformation properties of the human temporal muscle applicable to computer simulations of the human head or the comparison of the temporal muscle to other graft materials are unexplored to date and it is unclear, if these properties depend on age, sex, post-mortem interval or body side. Eighty-eight fresh temporal muscle samples from 69 human cadavers (age range 4 months - 94 years) were investigated in a quasi-static tensile setup. For comparative reasons, 20 age-matched human temporal muscle fascia and scalp samples were tested in the same manner as the temporal muscle. Human temporal muscle showed an elastic modulus of 1.58 ± 0.64 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 0.26 ± 0.11 MPa and a strain at maximum force of 26.21 ± 12.48%. These parameters were independent of sex (p > 0.88), side (p > 0.92) and post-mortem interval (p > 0.09). All passive load-deformation parameters of the human temporal muscle differed from temporal muscle fascia and scalp except for the strain at maximum force of the temporal muscle and scalp. Significantly different load-deformation properties of the human temporal muscle from temporal muscle fascia and scalp indicate the need for a separate simulation of these soft tissue layers in computational head models to reflect lifelike conditions. Contrary to other tissues such as scalp or temporal muscle fascia the biomechanical temporal muscle properties in head models may not require adjustments for sex, side and age based on the here-presented findings.