Computationally efficient viscoelastic flow simulation using a Lagrangian-Eulerian method and GPU-acceleration
A recently proposed Lagrangian-Eulerian method for viscoelastic flow simulation is extended to high performance calculations on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The two most computationally intensive parts of the algorithm are implemented for GPU calculation, namely the integration of the viscoelastic constitutive equation at the Lagrangian nodes and the interpolation of the resulting stresses to the cell centers of the Eulerian grid. In the original CPU method, the constitutive equations are integrated with a second order backward differentiation formula, while with the proposed GPU method the implicit Euler method is used. To allow fair comparison, the latter is also implemented for the CPU. The methods are validated for two flows, a planar Poiseuille flow of an upper-convected Maxwell fluid and flow past a confined cylinder of a four-mode Phan Thien Tanner fluid, with identical results. The calculation times for the methods are compared for a range of grid resolut ions and numbers of CPU threads, revealing a significant reduction of the calculation time for the proposed GPU method. As an example, the total simulation time is roughly halved compared to the original CPU method. The integration of the constitutive equation itself is reduced by a factor 50 to 250 and the unstructured stress interpolation by a factor 15 to 60, depending on the number of CPU threads used.