Enabling a new method of dynamic field-effect gas sensor operation through lithium-doped tungsten oxide
To fulfil today's requirements, gas sensors have to become more and more sensitive and selective. Temperature-cycled operation has long been used to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and, more recently, silicon-carbide-based, gas-sensitive field-effect transistors (SiC-FETs). In this work, we present a novel method to significantly enhance the effect of gate bias on a SiC-FET's response, giving rise to new possibilities for static and transient signal generation and, thus, increased sensitivity and selectivity. A tungsten trioxide (WO3) layer is deposited via pulsed laser deposition as an oxide layer beneath a porous iridium gate, and is doped with 0.1 AT % of lithium cations. Tests with ammonia as a well-characterized model gas show a relaxation effect with a time constant between 20 and 30 s after a gate bias step as well as significantly increased response and sensitivity at +2 V compared to 0 V. We propose an electric field-mediated change in oxygen surface coverage as the cause of this novel effect.