Data Centers as Active Multi-Energy Systems for Power Grid Decarbonization: A Technical and Economic Analysis
Power system decarbonization will be one of the main challenges confronting society over the next twenty to thirty years. Renewable energy sources (RES), such as wind and solar, will be the main resources supplying the power grid. Given their volatility, their integration into the grid necessitates planning and utilizing new flexibility options. Energy storage systems (ESS), multi-energy systems and active consumer involvement are three solutions attracting the scientific community's attention. Data centers (DCs) provide a very high degree of flexibility for consumers. They can be utilized to support system operators or integrate power generated by locally installed renewable energy source generators in the DC's network. This study is intended to contribute by developing a methodology for planning new flexibility options in DCs. The methodology developed treats DCs as active multi-energy systems. Control strategies were also developed. The technical and economic performance of the solutions implemented was evaluated.