Gender-specific constraints on academic entrepreneurship and engagement in knowledge and technology transfer
This article analyzes gender-specific constraints impacting scientists' engagement in knowledge and technology transfer and entrepreneurial activities at public research institutions in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To this end, we followed an exploratory case study approach and conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 40 academic entrepreneurs. The analysis revealed constraints impacting scientists' active engagement in transfer and entrepreneurship on two levels. On the meta-level, we identified constraints related to: i) nationwide transfer culture and ii) funding guidelines and structures. On the operational level, we identified constraints related to: i) organizational strategies and practices; ii) organizational culture; and iii) individual attributes and attitudes. By analyzing gender differences among these constraints, the study contributes to an understanding of varying needs for gender-specific founding support programs. The study also derives several implications for managing transfer at research organizations.