Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the noninvasive, nondestructive and marker-free characterization of biomaterials. Raman-based techniques, such as Raman microspectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy, or surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy allow chemically-sensitive spectral analyses in high resolution. The interpretation of Raman signals provides detailed qualitative and quantitative information about molecular polymorphisms, crystal structures, as well as substitution or the degree of polymerization. Moreover, Raman mapping can visualize synthetic and natural compounds in hybrid scaffolds, and enables the molecular tracing of drug release from nanoparticles that can serve as drug delivery systems. In tissue engineering, Raman spectra identify cellular features and indicate dynamic processes, such as cell differentiation and cell death.