PC1Dmod 6.2 - improved simulation of c-Si devices with updates on device physics and user interface
In this paper we present a new update to PC1Dmod, which extends the original PC1D program by implementing Fermi-Dirac statistics and a range of state-of-the-art models in order to improve the accuracy of c-Si device simulation. In PC1Dmod 6.2 the list of models is further expanded to include a parameterization of incomplete ionization of dopants (Altermatt et al., J. Appl. Phys.100, 113715, 2006), with parameters for phosphorus, boron, arsenic, gallium and aluminum. The results have been verified against a previous implementation of the model. We show that the inclusion of incomplete ionization is of particular importance for moderately doped surface regions with doping densities in the range ∼5 × 1017 to ∼5×1019 cm-3, resulting in a deviation of up to 15% in the simulated recombination current density and sheet resistance. The effect of incomplete ionization is also shown to be more pronounced in devices made from compensated Si material. Furthermore, the default solar spectrum has also been updated in PC1Dmod 6.2, taking advantage of the increased maximum file size to include a more realistic representation. The generation profiles calculated using PC1Dmod 6.2 together with input from OPAL 2 agree well with results from Sentaurus TCAD for both planar and pyramidally textured surfaces, thus facilitating a more direct comparison between PC1Dmod 6.2 and other simulation programs utilizing standard spectra. The simulation comparison is also extended to the electrical performance of the modeled devices, showing good agreement in the calculated short-circuit current density for a range of planar and textured solar cells with varying emitter doping. Finally, several new output options, including emitter saturation current and injection-dependent lifetime curves have been added, enabling a simpler and more direct way for users to access and plot important device properties.