Impact of sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum FST 1.7 on baking and sensory properties of gluten-free breads
Sourdoughs were produced from buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum, teff and wheat flour using the heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum FST 1.7 and added to a basic bread formulation of flour from the same grain type (20 % addition level). Dough rheology, textural (crumb hardness, specific volume) and structural bread characteristics (crumb porosity, cell volume, brightness) of sourdough-containing breads were compared to non-sourdough-containing breads (control). Changes in protein profiles as analysed with capillary electrophoresis were observed in all sourdoughs. Furthermore, sourdough addition led to decreased dough strength resulting in softer dough. No influences on specific volume and hardness on day of baking were found for gluten-free sourdough breads. The staling rate was reduced in buckwheat (from 8 +/- A 2 to 6 +/- A 2 N/day) and teff sourdough bread (13 +/- A 1 to 10 +/- A 4 N/day), however, not significantly in comparison with the control breads. On the contrary, in wheat sourdough bread, the staling rate was significantly reduced (2 +/- A 1 N/day) in comparison with control bread (5 +/- A 1 N/day). Sourdough addition increased the cell volume significantly in sorghum (+61 %), teff (+92 %) and wheat sourdough breads (+78 %). Therefore, crumb porosity was significantly increased in all gluten-free and wheat sourdough breads. Shelf life for sourdough breads was one (teff and oat), two (buckwheat, quinoa and sorghum) and 3 days (wheat) and was not prolonged by sourdough addition. The inferior aroma of breads prepared from the gluten-free flours was also not improved by sourdough addition.