Construction of invisibility cloaks of arbitrary shape and size using planar layers of metamaterials
Transformation optics (TO) is a powerful tool for the design of electromagnetic and optical devices with novel functionality derived from the unusual properties of the transformation media. In general, the fabrication of TO media is challenging, requiring spatially varying material properties with both anisotropic electric and magnetic responses. Though metamaterials have been proposed as a path for achieving such complex media, the required properties arising from the most general transformations remain elusive, and cannot implemented by state-of-the-art fabrication techniques. Here, we propose faceted approximations of TO media of arbitrary shape in which the volume of the TO device is divided into flat metamaterial layers. These layers can be readily implemented by standard fabrication and stacking techniques. We illustrate our approximation approach for the specific example of a two-dimensional, omnidirectional "invisibility cloak," and quantify its performance using the total scattering cross section as a practical figure of merit.