Numerical calculation of residual stress development of multi-pass gas metal arc welding
In various applications, welding-induced residual stresses have a substantial impact on the integrity of welded constructions. Tensile residual stress can promote stress-corrosion cracking, brittle fracture, and reduces the fatigue life in service, as well as influences component design due to critical stress concentrations within the component. In the present paper, a six bead multi-pass gas metal arc weld of 20 mm thick structural steel S355J2+N is experimentally and numerically investigated. The studies include transient 2D and 3D numerical calculations which consider temperature-dependent material properties, phase transformations, "thermal" tempering, transformation plasticity, volume change due to phase transformation, an elastic-plastic material model, and isotropic strain hardening. The experimentally determined and calculated residual stresses are in a good agreement. Furthermore, the influence of the preheat and interpass temperature on welding-induced residua l stresses is shown in the present investigation.