V-raf confers CSF-1 independent growth to a macrophage cell line and leads to immediate early gene expression without MAP-Kinase activation
The BAC-1.2F5 macrophage cell line depends on CSF-1 for proliferation and survival. Phosphorylation and activation of the RAF-1 kinase are among the early events in CSF-1 signal transduction. To characterize the role of RAF-1 in CSF-1 induced proliferation, we overexpressed oncogenically activated RAF-1, cellular RAF-1 and RAF-1 kinase-defective mutant proteins in BAC-1.2F5 cells. We were unable to establish stable cell lines expressing either kinase-negative or full length RAF-1 proteins, implying that expression of these molecules is not tolerated in BAC-1.2F5 cells. Oncogenically activated RAF-1 induces CSF-1 independent growth in the absence of autocrine growth factor production. Autonomous growth is not associated with dedifferentiation, since v-raf-expressing macrophages perform the same immunological functions as control cells.