Leveraging user preferences to develop profitable business models for electric vehicle charging
To design profitable business models for electric vehicle (EV) charging it is necessary to understand user preferences. For this purpose, prior literature is analyzed to develop a conceptual framework linking a company's assets, the surrounding value network, and user preferences. Then, survey insights from two EV charging projects (ultra-E, SLAM) are summarized to illustrate user preferences in this area. Based on this data, the framework is eventually visualized by applying it to four case studies from the EV charging market. Based on the case studies, the following six key findings are derived: 1. Companies that have a very strong position in one of the three resource classes that define the quality-of-service provision (physical assets, digital assets, brand image) demand a higher price for fast charging. 2. Utility companies leverage their existing customer base. 3. New to the industry firms leverage their brand image to enter the market. 4. Selling below cost is not sustainable. 5. Sharp price distinctions reflect the power balance within the value network. 6. Power plays may result in a fragmented market.