Now showing 1 - 10 of 26
  • Publication
    Topic modelling for spatial insights: Uncovering space use from movement data
    ( 2024-08-01)
    Andriyenko, Gennadiy
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    Andriyenko, Nathaliya
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    We present a novel approach to understanding space use by moving entities based on repeated patterns of place visits and transitions. Our approach represents trajectories as text documents consisting of sequences of place visits or transitions and applies topic modelling to the corpus of these documents. The resulting topics represent combinations of places or transitions, respectively, that repeatedly co-occur in trips. Visualisation of the results in the spatial context reveals the regions of place connectivity through movements and the major channels used to traverse the space. This enables understanding of the use of space as a medium for movement. We compare the possibilities provided by topic modelling to alternative approaches exploiting a numeric measure of pairwise connectedness. We have extensively explored the potential of utilising topic modelling by applying our approach to multiple real-world movement data sets with different data collection procedures and varying spatial and temporal properties: GPS road traffic of cars, unconstrained movement on a football pitch, and episodic movement data reflecting social media posting events. The approach successfully demonstrated the ability to uncover meaningful patterns and interesting insights. We thoroughly discuss different aspects of the approach and share the knowledge and experience we have gained with people who might be potentially interested in analysing movement data by means of topic modelling methods.
  • Publication
    Developing trustworthy AI applications with foundation models
    ( 2024-04) ;
    Schmidt, Sebastian
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    Müller, Felix Benjamin
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    Görge, Rebekka
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    Kern, Carmen
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    Loh, Silke
    The trustworthiness of AI applications has been the subject of recent research and is also addressed in the EU's recently adopted AI Regulation. The currently emerging foundation models in the field of text, speech and image processing offer completely new possibilities for developing AI applications. This whitepaper shows how the trustworthiness of an AI application developed with foundation models can be evaluated and ensured. For this purpose, the application-specific, risk-based approach for testing and ensuring the trustworthiness of AI applications, as developed in the "AI Assessment Catalog - Guideline for Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence" by Fraunhofer IAIS, is transferred to the context of foundation models. Special consideration is given to the fact that specific risks of foundation models can have an impact on the AI application and must also be taken into account when checking trustworthiness.
  • Publication
    Vertrauenswürdige KI-Anwendungen mit Foundation-Modellen entwickeln
    ( 2024-01-22) ;
    Schmidt, Sebastian
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    Müller, Felix Benjamin
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    Görge, Rebekka
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    Die weltweit erste, umfassende Regulierung von Künstlicher Intelligenz ist die europäische KI-Verordnung (AI Act), die zum Zeitpunkt der Veröffentlichung des Whitepapers kurz vor der formellen Verabschiedung steht und eine KI-Konformitätsbewertung von Hochrisikosystemen fordert. Vor diesem Hintergrund zeigt das Whitepaper auf, wie die Vertrauenswürdigkeit einer mit Foundation-Modellen entwickelten KI-Anwendung bewertet und sichergestellt werden kann. Dafür wird die Vorgehensweise, wie sie im »KI-Prüfkatalog zur Gestaltung vertrauenswürdiger Künstlicher Intelligenz« des Fraunhofer IAIS entwickelt worden ist, in den Kontext von Foundation-Modellen übertragen. Dabei wird besonders berücksichtigt, dass sich spezielle Risiken der Foundation-Modelle auf die KI-Anwendung auswirken können und zusätzlich bei der Prüfung der Vertrauenswürdigkeit beachtet werden müssen.
  • Publication
    Guideline for Designing Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence
    (Fraunhofer IAIS, 2023-02) ; ; ; ; ;
    Cremers, Armin B.
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    Houben, Sebastian
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    Sicking, Joachim
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    Loh, Silke
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    Stolberg, Evelyn
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    Tomala, Annette Daria
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has made impressive progress in recent years and represents a a crucial impact on the economy and society. Prominent use cases include applications in medical diagnostics,key technology that has predictive maintenance and, in the future, autonomous driving. However, it is clear that AI and business models based on it can only reach their full potential if AI applications are developed according to high quality standards and are effectively protected against new AI risks. For instance, AI bears the risk of unfair treatment of individuals when processing personal data e.g., to support credit lending or staff recruitment decisions. Serious false predictions resulting from minor disturbances in the input data are another example - for instance, when pedestrians are not detected by an autonomous vehicle due to image noise. The emergence of these new risks is closely linked to the fact that the process for developing AI applications, particularly those based on Machine Learning (ML), strongly differs from that of conventional software. This is because the behavior of AI applications is essentially learned from large volumes of data and is not predetermined by fixed programmed rules.
  • Publication
    Big Data 2.0 - mit synthetischen Daten KI-Systeme stärken
    Bei der Anwendung von Künstlicher Intelligenz (KI) sind fehlende Daten immer noch eine Kernherausforderung und die Kosten zur Beschaffung ein kritischer Faktor für die Wirtschaftlichkeit vieler Geschäftsmodelle. Synthetische, also künstlich generierte Daten bilden einen Ausweg. Ein vielversprechender Lösungsansatz besteht darin, für die Datensynthese selbst ein KI-Modell einzusetzen.
  • Publication
    Reinforcement Learning for Segmented Manufacturing
    ( 2023)
    Paul, Nathalie
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    Fetz, Maximilian Elias
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    The manufacturing of large components is, in comparison to small components, cost intensive. This is due to the sheer size of the components and the limited scalability in number of produced items. To take advantage of the effects of small component production we segment the large components into smaller parts and schedule the production of these parts on regular-sized machine tools. We propose to apply and adapt recent developments in reinforcement learning in combination with heuristics to efficiently solve the resulting segmentation and assignment problem. In particular, we solve the assignment problem up to a factor of 8 faster and only a few percentages less accurate than a classic solver from operations research.
  • Publication
    KI-Engineering in der Produktion
    Um Methoden der künstlichen Intelligenz (KI) in IT-Systemen der industriellen Produktion nachhaltig und operativ einzusetzen, bedarf es der Methodik des KI-Engineering. KI-Engineering adressiert die systematische Entwicklung und den Betrieb von KI-basierten Lösungen als Teil von Systemen, die komplexe Aufgaben erfüllen. Ziel ist es, das Innovations- und Optimierungspotenzial von KI-Verfahren in der industriellen Produktion nutzen zu können. Die Studie spannt die Dimensionen für KI-Engineering-Anwendungen auf, umreißt die qualitativen Anforderungen in der Entwicklung und im Betrieb unter dem Blickwinkel des Anwenders und Entscheiders. Verschiedene Anwendungsfälle werden in vier Autonomiestufen eingeordnet: von KI-basierten Assistenzfunktionen bis hin zu autonomen und adaptiven Systemen. Zudem werden passende Lösungsmethoden aufgezeigt. Ein Kapitel widmet sich den technischen und organisatorischen Schulden beim Einsatz von KI-Methoden. Hierin wird als Antwort das KI-Engineering-Vorgehensmodell PAISE® im Kontext bestehender Modelle aus dem Data Mining und dem Software-Engineering erläutert. Im Anschluss werden relevante Initiativen und Projekte beschrieben und anstehende Entwicklungen umrissen.
  • Publication
    Extracting Movement-based Topics for Analysis of Space Use
    ( 2023)
    Andriyenko, Gennadiy
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    Andriyenko, Nathaliya
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    We present a novel approach to analyze spatio-temporal movement patterns using topic modeling. Our approach represents trajectories as sequences of place visits and moves, applies topic modeling separately to each collection of sequences, and synthesizes results. This supports the identification of dominant topics for both place visits and moves, the exploration of spatial and temporal patterns of movement, enabling understanding of space use. The approach is applied to two real-world data sets of car movements in Milan and UK road traffic, demonstrating the ability to uncover meaningful patterns and insights.
  • Publication
    The why and how of trustworthy AI
    Artificial intelligence is increasingly penetrating industrial applications as well as areas that affect our daily lives. As a consequence, there is a need for criteria to validate whether the quality of AI applications is sufficient for their intended use. Both in the academic community and societal debate, an agreement has emerged under the term “trustworthiness” as the set of essential quality requirements that should be placed on an AI application. At the same time, the question of how these quality requirements can be operationalized is to a large extent still open. In this paper, we consider trustworthy AI from two perspectives: the product and organizational perspective. For the former, we present an AI-specific risk analysis and outline how verifiable arguments for the trustworthiness of an AI application can be developed. For the second perspective, we explore how an AI management system can be employed to assure the trustworthiness of an organization with respect to its handling of AI. Finally, we argue that in order to achieve AI trustworthiness, coordinated measures from both product and organizational perspectives are required.
  • Publication
    Moderne Sprachtechnologien
    (Fraunhofer IAIS, 2021-08)
    Temath, Christian
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    Jovy-Klein, Florian
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    Lange, Mirco
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    Sprachschnittstellen sind auf dem Vormarsch und verdrängen zunehmend die Tastatur: im Smartphone, im Auto, zu Hause und in den Betrieben zur Steuerung von technischen Geräten. Immer neue Sprachtechnologien werden vorgestellt, die Geschwindigkeit der Entwicklung ist dabei atemberaubend. Selbst das Schreiben eigener Texte durch KI ist schon möglich und die Forschung arbeitet an der Erzeugung von Bildern aus Texten. Mit dieser Studie möchten wir Ihnen einen Einblick in das spannende Feld der Sprachtechnologien geben, ihre zentralen Funktionsweisen erklären und Einsatzchancen insbesondere durch konkrete Anwendungsfälle und Lösungen aufzeigen.