Fraunhofer Institut für Integrierte Publikations-und Informationssysteme IPSI
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PublicationDigital signatures based on invertible watermarks for video authentication( 2005)
;Hauer, E. ;Dittmann, J.Steinebach, M.
PublicationDesign principles for active audio and video fingerprinting( 2005)
;Steinebach, M.Dittmann, J.
PublicationAdvanced audio watermarking benchmarking( 2004)
;Dittmann, J. ;Steinebach, M. ;Lang, A.Zmudizinski, S.Digital watermarking is envisaged as a potential technology for copyright protection and manipulation recognition. A key issue in the usage of robust watermarking is the evaluation of robustness and security. StirMark Benchmarking has been taken to set a benchmarking suite for audio watermarking in addition to existing still image evaluation solutions. In particular we give an overview of recent advancements and actual questions in robustness and transparency evaluations, in complexity and performance issues, in security and capacity questions. Further more we introduce benchmarking for content-fragile watermarking by summarizing design aspects and concluding essential benchmarking requirements.
PublicationA high-capacity block based video watermark( 2004)
;Thiemert, S. ;Vogel, T. ;Dittmann, J.Steinebach, M.
PublicationDigitale Audiowasserzeichen im Archivbereich - Das H2O4M Projekt( 2003)
;Steinebach, M. ;Hauer, E.Dittmann, J.
PublicationPsycho-akustische Modelle für StirMark Benchmark - Modelle zur Transparenzevaluierung( 2003)
;Lang, A. ;Dittmann, J.Steinebach, M.
PublicationWatermarking-based digital audio data authentication( 2003)
;Steinebach, M.Dittmann, J.Digital watermarking has become an accepted technology for enabling multimedia protection schemes. While most efforts concentrate on user authentication, recently interest in data authentication to ensure data integrity has been increasing. Existing concepts address mainly image data. Depending on the necessary security level and the sensitivity to detect changes in the media, we differentiate between fragile, semifragile, and content-fragile watermarking approaches for media authentication. Furthermore, invertible watermarking schemes exist while each bit change can be recognized by the watermark, which can be extracted and the original data can be reproduced for high-security applications. Later approaches can be extended with cryptographic approaches like digital signatures. As we see from the literature, only few audio approaches exist and the audio domain requires additional strategies for time flow protection and resynchronization. To allow different security levels, we have to identify relevant audio features that can be used to determine content manipulations. Furthermore, in the field of invertible schemes, there are a bunch of publications for image and video data but no approaches for digital audio to ensure data authentication for high-security applications. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate two watermarking algorithms for digital audio data, addressing content integrity protection. In our first approach, we discuss possible features for a content-fragile watermarking scheme to allow several postproduction modifications. The second approach is designed for high-security applications to detect each bit change and reconstruct the original audio by introducing an invertible audio watermarking concept. Based on the invertible audio scheme, we combine digital signature schemes and digital watermarking to provide a public verifiable data authentication and a reproduction of the original, protected with a secret key.
PublicationCapacity-optimized mp2 audio watermarking( 2003)
;Steinebach, M.Dittmann, J.Today a number of audio watermarking algorithms have been proposed, some of them at a quality making them suitable for commercial applications. The focus of most of these algorithms is copyright protection. Therefore, transparency and robustness are the most discussed and optimised parameters. But other applications for audio watermarking can also be identified stressing other parameters like complexity or payload. In our paper, we introduce a new mp2 audio watermarking algorithm optimised for high payload. Our algorithm uses the scale factors of an mp2 file for watermark embedding. They are grouped and masked based on a pseudo-random pattern generated from a secret key. In each group, we embed one bit. Depending on the bit to embed, we change the scale factors by adding 1 where necessary until it includes either more even or uneven scale factors. An uneven group has a 1 embedded, an even group a 0. The same rule is later applied to detect the watermark. The group size can be increased or decreased for transparency/payload trade-off. We embed 160 bits or more in an mp2 file per second without reducing perceived quality. As an application example, we introduce a prototypic Karaoke system displaying song lyrics embedded as a watermark.
PublicationAudio watermarking quality evaluation: Robustness to DA/AD processes( 2002)
;Steinebach, M. ;Lang, A. ;Dittmann, J.Neubauer, C.Audio watermarking has become an important technology for the recording and advertisement industry. Today's embedding and detection strategies often rely on digital/ high quality channels, like CD or mp3. However for numerous applications, watermarks surviving noisy analog environments are better suited or even required. Using such schemes allows to identify, audio signals with monitoring devices which are 'listening' to the incoming signals. In the same way, illegal recordings of concerts can be identified. In this paper we describe a test environment for noisy, acoustic, (analog) channels and present results obtained from a particular watermarking scheme. We identify changes in the affected audio material, like frequency response or the amount of noise added to the signal. In order to do automatic robustness evaluations of watermarking schemes, the Stirmark Benchmark environment can be used. We analyze if it is possible to simulate an acoustic, noisy DA/AD environment with filters, quantization and noise generators. Based on the presented test results, we identify the parameters relevant for watermarks to successfully survive noisy acoustic channels and thereby provide valuable hints for audio watermark designers. We also describe a design concept for a DA/AD simulation.
PublicationAusgewählte Angriffe der Stirmark Benchmark Suite( 2002)
;Lang, A. ;Thiemert, S. ;Steinebach, M.Dittmann, J.