Now showing 1 - 10 of 2642
  • Publication
    PowerGrasp: Development Aspects for Arm Support Systems
    ( 2022)
    Goppold, J.-P.
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    Kuschan, J.
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    Schmidt, H.
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    Krüger, J.
    Exoskeletons can support workers on physically demanding tasks, but in industry they lack of acceptance. This contribution gives an insight into design aspects for upper body exoskeletons, especially how active exoskeletons for industrial applications differ from military and medical use-cases. To overcome typical rigid exoskeleton problems, we suggest the use of modular soft-exosuit support systems and therefore checked different types of soft actuation principles for their eligibility for the use on upper body joints. Most promising approach is using two-layered actuators sting of robust fabric with embedded rubber tubes as pressure chambers. By inflating the tubes, it is possible to vary the stiffness of the chambers, which can be effectively used to generate assisting forces and moments at human joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, finger).
  • Publication
    Robot Inference of Human States: Performance and Transparency in Physical Collaboration
    ( 2022)
    Haninger, K.
    To flexibly collaborate towards a shared goal in human-robot interaction (HRI), a robot must appropriately respond to changes in their human partner. The robot can realize this flexibility by responding to certain inputs, or by inferring some aspect of their collaborator and using this to modify robot behavior-approaches which reflect design viewpoints of robots as tools and collaborators, respectively. Independent of this design viewpoint, the robot's response to a change in collaborator state must also be designed. In this regard, HRI approaches can be distinguished according to the scope of their design objectives: whether the design goal depends on the behavior of the individual agents or the coupled team. This chapter synthesizes work on physical HRI, largely in manufacturing tasks, according to the design viewpoint and scope of objective used. HRI is posed as the coupling of two dynamic systems; a framework which allows a unified presentation of the various design approaches and, within which, common concepts in HRI can be posed (intent, authority, information flow). Special attention is paid to predictability at various stages of the design and deployment process: whether the designer can predict team performance, whether the human can predict robot behavior, and to what degree the human behavior can be modelled or learned.
  • Publication
    Wolframschmelzcarbidbasierte MMC-Schichten für den industriellen Einsatz im Formenbau
    ( 2022)
    Langebeck, Anika
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    Jahnke, Christian
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    Wünderlich, Tim
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    Bohlen, Annika
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    Zur Steigerung der abrasiven Verschleißbeständigkeit können Oberflächen lokal mit Hartpartikeln verstärkt werden. Diese sogenannten Metal-Matrix-Composit(MMC)-Schichten können mittels Laserstrahldispergieren gefertigt und durch Mikrofräsen nachbearbeitet werden. Im hier vorgestellten Forschungsvorhaben wurde als Grundwerkstoff verwendete Aluminiumbronze (CuAl10Ni5Fe4) mit Wolframschmelzcarbid verstärkt. Der Hartpartikelgehalt kann dabei durch eine Steigerung des Pulvermassenstroms bis zur Packungsdichte des unverarbeiteten Pulvers erhöht werden. Über eine temperaturbasierte Leistungsregelung kann eine gleichbleibend homogene MMC-Schicht mit konstanter Dicke und Tiefe dispergiert werden. Durch das Mikrofräsen mit optimierten Parametern können qualitativ hochwertige MMC-Oberflächen für den industriellen Einsatz in Spritzgusswerkzeugen hergestellt werden. Dabei wurde vor allem der Zahnvorschub fz als kritischer Prozessparameter identifiziert.
  • Publication
    Effects on crack formation of additive manufactured Inconel 939 sheets during electron beam welding
    ( 2022)
    Raute, Julius
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    Jokisch, Torsten
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    The potential of additive manufacturing for processing precipitation hardened nickel-base superalloys, such as Inconel 939 is considerable, but in order to fully exploit this potential, fusion welding capabilities for additive parts need to be explored. Currently, it is uncertain how the different properties from the additive manufacturing process will affect the weldability of materials susceptible to hot cracking. Therefore, this work investigates the possibility of joining additively manufactured nickel-based superalloys using electron beam welding. In particular, the influence of process parameters on crack formation is investigated. In addition, hardness measurements are performed on cross-sections of the welds. It is shown that cracks at the seam head are enhanced by welding speed and energy per unit length and correlate with the hardness of the weld metal. Cracking parallel to the weld area shows no clear dependence on the process variables that have been investigated, but is related to the hardness of the heat-affected zone.
  • Publication
    Багатодротове дугове зварювання високоміцних дрібнозернистих сталей під флюсом
    ( 2022) ; ; ; ;
    Lichtenthäler, F.
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    Stark, M.
    Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed
  • Publication
    Literature review of quality attributes for collaborative product development
    ( 2022)
    Randermann, Marcel
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    Jochem, Roland
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    Stark, Rainer
    In collaborative product development, diverse stakeholders are involved in distributed engineering activities. This situation makes it difficult to ensure, manage, and improve the quality across company boundaries. Therefore, this work determines the characteristics of collaborative engineering which have an influence on the quality of distributed product development. Several interoperability frameworks were analyzed in order to get insights into key areas for collaboration design. Furthermore, a systematic literature review provided the best practices for improvement efforts. The derived quality attributes were condensed and adapted to collaborative product development in the four key areas of organization and processes, data/artifacts, information technology systems and infrastructure, and social factors. This enables product developers to examine their collaborative engineering environment and to identify room for improvement and to enhance quality. A case example of an engineering change order shows a collaborative data flow process, in which the quality attributes may indicate improvement measures.
  • Publication
    Numerical investigation into cleanability of support structures produced by powder bed fusion technology
    ( 2022)
    Campana, Giampaolo
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    Mele, Mattia
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    Raffaelli, Luca
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    Bergmann, André
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    Purpose: Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them. Design/methodology/approach: This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design. Findings: The resul ts, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes. Originality/value: This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.
  • Publication
    Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of Thick-Walled, Closed, Circumferential Pipe Welds
    ( 2022)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
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    The application of hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) for joining closed circumferential welds is a challenge due to the high risk of forming a defective overlap area with a shrinkage void or solidification cracks in the material thickness. A series of HLAW experiments were performed to understand the development of a faulty overlap area when closing the circumferential weld. Welding trials on flat specimens and pipe segments were supported by numerical analyses in which the thermomechanical behavior of the welds in the overlap area was investigated. Different process control strategies were tested, including variations in defocusing levels and the overlap length. The newly developed HLAW head, including laser optics with a motor-driven collimation system, made it possible to defocus the laser beam during welding without disturbing the stability of the welding process. High-level defocusing of the laser beam of more than 40 mm relative to the specimen surface with a resulting beam diameter of > 2.9 mm, and in combination with a short overlap length of 15 mm, was promising with respect to the formation of a desired cup-shaped weld profile that is resistant to solidification cracks.
  • Publication
    Optimizing the sharpening process of hybrid-bonded diamond grinding wheels by means of a process model
    ( 2022) ;
    Muthulingam, Arunan
    The grinding wheel topography influences the cutting performance and thus the economic efficiency of a grinding process. In contrary to conventional grinding wheels, super abrasive grinding wheels should undergo an additional sharpening process after the initial profiling process to obtain a suitable microstructure of the grinding wheel. Due to the lack of scientific knowledge, the sharpening process is mostly performed manually in industrial practice. A CNC-controlled sharpening process can not only improve the reproducibility of grinding processes but also decrease the secondary processing time and thereby increase the economic efficiency significantly. To optimize the sharpening process, experimental investigations were carried out to identify the significant sharpening parameters influencing the grinding wheel topography. The sharpening block width lSb, the grain size of the sharpening block dkSb and the area-related material removal in sharpening VâSb were identi fied as the most significant parameters. Additional experiments were performed to further quantify the influence of the significant sharpening parameters. Based on that, a process model was developed to predict the required sharpening parameters for certain target topographies. By using the process model, constant work results and improved process reliability can be obtained.
  • Publication
    High-power laser beam welding for thick section steels - new perspectives using electromagnetic systems
    ( 2022)
    Rethmeier, M.
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    Gumenyuk, A.
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    Bachmann, M.
    In recent years, it was shown that the introduction of additional oscillating and permanent magnetic fields to laser beam and laser-arc hybrid welding can bring several beneficial effects. Examples are a contactless weld pool support for metals of high thickness suffering from severe drop-out when being welded conventionally or an enhanced stirring to improve the mixing of added filler material in the depth of the weld pool to guarantee homogeneous resulting mechanical properties of the weld. The latest research results show the applicability to various metal types over a wide range of thicknesses and welding conditions. The observations made were demonstrated in numerous experimental studies and a deep understanding of the interaction of the underlying physical mechanisms was extracted from numerical calculations.