Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationMethodology for a reverse engineering process chain with focus on customized segmentation and iterative closest point algorithms( 2022)
; ;Schröder, RobertStark, RainerOne-off construction is characterized by a multiplicity of manual manufacturing processes whereby it is based on consistent use of digital models. Since the actual state of construction does not match the digital models without manually updating them, the authors propose a method to automatically detect deviations and reposition the model data according to reality. The first essential method is based on the ""Segmentation of Unorganized Points and Recognition of Simple Algebraic Surfaces"" presented by Vanco et al.. The second method is the customization of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. The authors present the overall structure of the implemented software, based on open source and relate it to the general reverse engineering (RE) framework by Buonamici et al.. A highlight will be given on: the general architecture of the software prototype; a customized segmentation and clustering of unorganized points and recognition of simple algebraic surfaces; the deviation analysis with a customized iterative closest point (CICP) algorithm Especially in the field of one-off construction, characterized by small and medium companies, automated assessment of 3D scan data during the design process is still in its infancy. By using an open source environment progress for consistent use of digital models could be accelerated.
PublicationMultiple-Wire Submerged Arc Welding of High-Strength Fine-Grained Steels( 2022)
;Gook, S. ; ; ; ;Lichtenthäler, F.Stark, M.Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed.
PublicationIn situ microstructure analysis of Inconel 625 during laser powder bed fusion( 2022)
;Schmeiser, F. ;Krohmer, E. ;Wagner, C. ;Schell, N. ;Uhlmann, E.Reimers, W.Laser powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process that employs highly focused laser radiation for selective melting of a metal powder bed. This process entails a complex heat flow and thermal management that results in characteristic, often highly textured microstructures, which lead to mechanical anisotropy. In this study, high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out to illuminate the formation and evolution of microstructural features during LPBF. The nickel-base alloy Inconel 625 was used for in situ experiments using a custom LPBF system designed for these investigations. The diffraction patterns yielded results regarding texture, lattice defects, recrystallization, and chemical segregation. A combination of high laser power and scanning speed results in a strong preferred crystallographic orientation, while low laser power and scanning speed showed no clear texture. The observation of a constant gauge volume revealed solid-state texture changes without remelting. They were related to in situ recrystallization processes caused by the repeated laser scanning. After recrystallization, the formation and growth of segregations were deduced from an increasing diffraction peak asymmetry and confirmed by ex situ scanning transmission electron microscopy.
PublicationStudy on the transition behavior of the bulging effect during deep penetration laser beam welding( 2022)
;Artinov, A. ;Meng, X. ;Bachmann, M.Rethmeier, M.The present work is devoted to the study of the transition behavior of the recently confirmed widening of the weld pool, known as the bulging effect, during high-power deep penetration laser beam welding of thick unalloyed steel sheets. A three-dimensional transient multi-physics numerical model is developed, allowing for the prediction of the bulge formation and the study of its temporal behavior. The model is generalized to account automatically for the transition from partial to complete penetration. Several experimental measurements and observations, such as drilling period, weld pool length, temperature, efficiency, and metallographic cross-sections are used to verify the model and assure the plausibility of the numerical results. The analysis of the calculated temperature and velocity distributions, as well as the evolution of the keyhole geometry, show that the formation of a bulging region strongly depends on the penetration depth of the weld. Based on the numerical results, the bulge is found to occur transiently, having its transition from a slight bulge to a fully developed bulging between penetration depths of 6 mm and 9 mm, respectively.
PublicationCharacterization of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Multilayer Laser Powder-Based Directed Energy Deposition( 2022)
;Ávila Calderón, Luis Alexander ;Graf, Benjamin ;Rehmer, Birgit ;Petrat, Torsten ;Skrotzki, BirgitLaser powder-based directed energy deposition (DED-L) is increasingly being used in additive manufacturing (AM). As AM technology, DED-L must consider specific challenges. It must achieve uniform volume growth over hundreds of layers and avoid heat buildup of the deposited material. Herein, Ti-6Al-4V is fabricated using an approach that addresses these challenges and is relevant in terms of transferability to DED-L applications in AM. The assessment of the obtained properties and the discussion of their relationship to the process conditions and resulting microstructure are presented. The quality of the manufacturing process is proven in terms of the reproducibility of properties between individual blanks and with respect to the building height. The characterization demonstrates that excellent mechanical properties are achieved at room temperature and at 400 C.
PublicationUntersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der Geometrie und Werkstoffeigenschaften laserimplantierter Werkzeugstahloberflächen sowie zum tribologischen Einsatzverhalten(Fraunhofer Verlag, 2022)Spranger, FelixIn einer Vielzahl technischer Anwendungen spielt die Schaffung und Aufrechterhaltung eines definierten tribologischen Verhaltens zwischen in Kontakt tretenden Wirkflächen für die Funktionalität von Bauteilen oder Werkzeugen eine entscheidende Rolle. Verfahren der Oberflächentechnik verfolgen das Ziel, entweder durch eine Manipulation der Werkstoffeigenschaften oder durch eine Strukturierung der Wirkfächen diese anzupassen. Obwohl erhabene Mikrostrukturen großes Potenzial zur gezielten Manipulation zeigen, wurden diese bislang wenig betrachtet, da sie anfällig für Verschleiß sind und nur schwer hergestellt werden können. Mit der Laserimplantation ist ein Verfahren bekannt, welches diese Hemmnisse überwindet und eine Generierung verschleißbeständiger, erhabener Mikrostrukturen (Implants) durch ein gepulstes Laserdispergieren keramischer Hartstoffpartikel in Wirkflächen zulässt. Um eine breite Nutzbarkeit zu erreichen, wird in dieser Arbeit eine Erweiterung des Prozessverständnisses forciert, sodass die geometrischen als auch werkstofftechnischen Implanteigenschaften zielgerichtet manipulierbar werden. Des Weiteren wird die tribologische Wirkweise implantierter Oberflächen betrachtet.
PublicationHybrid laser-arc welding of laser- and plasma-cut 20-mm-thick structural steels( 2022)
;Üstündag, Ömer ;Bakir, Nasim ; ;It is already known that the laser beam welding (LBW) or hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) processes are sensitive to manufacturing tolerances such as gaps and misalignment of the edges, especially at welding of thick-walled steels due to its narrow beam diameter. Therefore, the joining parts preferably have to be milled. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality, the gap and the misalignment of edges on the weld seam quality of hybrid laser-arc welded 20-mm-thick structural steel plates which were prepared by laser and plasma cutting. Single-pass welds were conducted in butt joint configuration. An AC magnet was used as a contactless backing. It was positioned under the workpiece during the welding process to prevent sagging. The profile of the edges and the gap between the workpieces were measured before welding by a profile scanner or a digital camera, respectively. With a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW, the single-pass welds could be performed. A gap bridgeability up to 1 mm at laser-cut and 2 mm at plasma-cut samples could be reached respectively. Furthermore, a misalignment of the edges up to 2 mm could be welded in a single pass. The new findings may eliminate the need for cost and time-consuming preparation of the edges.
PublicationNumerical investigation into cleanability of support structures produced by powder bed fusion technology( 2022)
;Campana, G. ;Uhlmann, E. ;Mele, M. ;Raffaelli, L. ;Bergmann, A. ;Kochan, J.Polte, J.Purpose: Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them. Design/methodology/approach: This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design. Findings: The resul ts, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes. Originality/value: This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.
PublicationБагатодротове дугове зварювання високоміцних дрібнозернистих сталей під флюсом( 2022)
; ; ; ; ;Lichtenthäler, F.Stark, M.Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed
PublicationPowerGrasp: Development Aspects for Arm Support Systems( 2022)
;Goppold, J.-P. ;Kuschan, J. ;Schmidt, H.Krüger, J.Exoskeletons can support workers on physically demanding tasks, but in industry they lack of acceptance. This contribution gives an insight into design aspects for upper body exoskeletons, especially how active exoskeletons for industrial applications differ from military and medical use-cases. To overcome typical rigid exoskeleton problems, we suggest the use of modular soft-exosuit support systems and therefore checked different types of soft actuation principles for their eligibility for the use on upper body joints. Most promising approach is using two-layered actuators sting of robust fabric with embedded rubber tubes as pressure chambers. By inflating the tubes, it is possible to vary the stiffness of the chambers, which can be effectively used to generate assisting forces and moments at human joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, finger).