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Wolframschmelzcarbidbasierte MMC-Schichten für den industriellen Einsatz im Formenbau

2022 , Langebeck, Anika , Jahnke, Christian , Wünderlich, Tim , Hein, Christoph , Bohlen, Annika , Uhlmann, Eckart

Zur Steigerung der abrasiven Verschleißbeständigkeit können Oberflächen lokal mit Hartpartikeln verstärkt werden. Diese sogenannten Metal-Matrix-Composit(MMC)-Schichten können mittels Laserstrahldispergieren gefertigt und durch Mikrofräsen nachbearbeitet werden. Im hier vorgestellten Forschungsvorhaben wurde als Grundwerkstoff verwendete Aluminiumbronze (CuAl10Ni5Fe4) mit Wolframschmelzcarbid verstärkt. Der Hartpartikelgehalt kann dabei durch eine Steigerung des Pulvermassenstroms bis zur Packungsdichte des unverarbeiteten Pulvers erhöht werden. Über eine temperaturbasierte Leistungsregelung kann eine gleichbleibend homogene MMC-Schicht mit konstanter Dicke und Tiefe dispergiert werden. Durch das Mikrofräsen mit optimierten Parametern können qualitativ hochwertige MMC-Oberflächen für den industriellen Einsatz in Spritzgusswerkzeugen hergestellt werden. Dabei wurde vor allem der Zahnvorschub fz als kritischer Prozessparameter identifiziert.

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Literature review of quality attributes for collaborative product development

2022 , Randermann, Marcel , Blüher, Till , Jochem, Roland , Stark, Rainer

In collaborative product development, diverse stakeholders are involved in distributed engineering activities. This situation makes it difficult to ensure, manage, and improve the quality across company boundaries. Therefore, this work determines the characteristics of collaborative engineering which have an influence on the quality of distributed product development. Several interoperability frameworks were analyzed in order to get insights into key areas for collaboration design. Furthermore, a systematic literature review provided the best practices for improvement efforts. The derived quality attributes were condensed and adapted to collaborative product development in the four key areas of organization and processes, data/artifacts, information technology systems and infrastructure, and social factors. This enables product developers to examine their collaborative engineering environment and to identify room for improvement and to enhance quality. A case example of an engineering change order shows a collaborative data flow process, in which the quality attributes may indicate improvement measures.

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Optimizing the sharpening process of hybrid-bonded diamond grinding wheels by means of a process model

2022 , Uhlmann, Eckart , Muthulingam, Arunan

The grinding wheel topography influences the cutting performance and thus the economic efficiency of a grinding process. In contrary to conventional grinding wheels, super abrasive grinding wheels should undergo an additional sharpening process after the initial profiling process to obtain a suitable microstructure of the grinding wheel. Due to the lack of scientific knowledge, the sharpening process is mostly performed manually in industrial practice. A CNC-controlled sharpening process can not only improve the reproducibility of grinding processes but also decrease the secondary processing time and thereby increase the economic efficiency significantly. To optimize the sharpening process, experimental investigations were carried out to identify the significant sharpening parameters influencing the grinding wheel topography. The sharpening block width lSb, the grain size of the sharpening block dkSb and the area-related material removal in sharpening VâSb were identi fied as the most significant parameters. Additional experiments were performed to further quantify the influence of the significant sharpening parameters. Based on that, a process model was developed to predict the required sharpening parameters for certain target topographies. By using the process model, constant work results and improved process reliability can be obtained.

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Multiple-Wire Submerged Arc Welding of High-Strength Fine-Grained Steels

2022 , Gook, S. , El-Sari, Bassel , Biegler, Max , Rethmeier, Michael , Lichtenthäler, F. , Stark, M.

Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed.

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Effects on crack formation of additive manufactured Inconel 939 sheets during electron beam welding

2022 , Raute, Julius , Jokisch, Torsten , Biegler, Max , Rethmeier, Michael

The potential of additive manufacturing for processing precipitation hardened nickel-base superalloys, such as Inconel 939 is considerable, but in order to fully exploit this potential, fusion welding capabilities for additive parts need to be explored. Currently, it is uncertain how the different properties from the additive manufacturing process will affect the weldability of materials susceptible to hot cracking. Therefore, this work investigates the possibility of joining additively manufactured nickel-based superalloys using electron beam welding. In particular, the influence of process parameters on crack formation is investigated. In addition, hardness measurements are performed on cross-sections of the welds. It is shown that cracks at the seam head are enhanced by welding speed and energy per unit length and correlate with the hardness of the weld metal. Cracking parallel to the weld area shows no clear dependence on the process variables that have been investigated, but is related to the hardness of the heat-affected zone.

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Numerical investigation into cleanability of support structures produced by powder bed fusion technology

2022 , Campana, Giampaolo , Uhlmann, Eckart , Mele, Mattia , Raffaelli, Luca , Bergmann, André , Kochan, Jaroslaw , Polte, Julian

Purpose: Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them. Design/methodology/approach: This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design. Findings: The resul ts, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes. Originality/value: This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.

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High-power laser beam welding for thick section steels - new perspectives using electromagnetic systems

2022 , Rethmeier, M. , Gumenyuk, A. , Bachmann, M.

In recent years, it was shown that the introduction of additional oscillating and permanent magnetic fields to laser beam and laser-arc hybrid welding can bring several beneficial effects. Examples are a contactless weld pool support for metals of high thickness suffering from severe drop-out when being welded conventionally or an enhanced stirring to improve the mixing of added filler material in the depth of the weld pool to guarantee homogeneous resulting mechanical properties of the weld. The latest research results show the applicability to various metal types over a wide range of thicknesses and welding conditions. The observations made were demonstrated in numerous experimental studies and a deep understanding of the interaction of the underlying physical mechanisms was extracted from numerical calculations.

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Багатодротове дугове зварювання високоміцних дрібнозернистих сталей під флюсом

2022 , Gook, Sergej , El-Sari, Bassel , Biegler, Max , Rethmeier, Michael , Lichtenthäler, F. , Stark, M.

Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed

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Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of Thick-Walled, Closed, Circumferential Pipe Welds

2022 , Üstündag, Ömer , Bakir, Nasim , Gook, Sergej , Gumenyuk, Andrey , Rethmeier, Michael

The application of hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) for joining closed circumferential welds is a challenge due to the high risk of forming a defective overlap area with a shrinkage void or solidification cracks in the material thickness. A series of HLAW experiments were performed to understand the development of a faulty overlap area when closing the circumferential weld. Welding trials on flat specimens and pipe segments were supported by numerical analyses in which the thermomechanical behavior of the welds in the overlap area was investigated. Different process control strategies were tested, including variations in defocusing levels and the overlap length. The newly developed HLAW head, including laser optics with a motor-driven collimation system, made it possible to defocus the laser beam during welding without disturbing the stability of the welding process. High-level defocusing of the laser beam of more than 40 mm relative to the specimen surface with a resulting beam diameter of > 2.9 mm, and in combination with a short overlap length of 15 mm, was promising with respect to the formation of a desired cup-shaped weld profile that is resistant to solidification cracks.

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Study on the transition behavior of the bulging effect during deep penetration laser beam welding

2022 , Artinov, A. , Meng, X. , Bachmann, M. , Rethmeier, M.

The present work is devoted to the study of the transition behavior of the recently confirmed widening of the weld pool, known as the bulging effect, during high-power deep penetration laser beam welding of thick unalloyed steel sheets. A three-dimensional transient multi-physics numerical model is developed, allowing for the prediction of the bulge formation and the study of its temporal behavior. The model is generalized to account automatically for the transition from partial to complete penetration. Several experimental measurements and observations, such as drilling period, weld pool length, temperature, efficiency, and metallographic cross-sections are used to verify the model and assure the plausibility of the numerical results. The analysis of the calculated temperature and velocity distributions, as well as the evolution of the keyhole geometry, show that the formation of a bulging region strongly depends on the penetration depth of the weld. Based on the numerical results, the bulge is found to occur transiently, having its transition from a slight bulge to a fully developed bulging between penetration depths of 6 mm and 9 mm, respectively.