Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationStudy on the transition behavior of the bulging effect during deep penetration laser beam welding( 2022)
;Artinov, A. ;Meng, X. ;Bachmann, M.Rethmeier, M.The present work is devoted to the study of the transition behavior of the recently confirmed widening of the weld pool, known as the bulging effect, during high-power deep penetration laser beam welding of thick unalloyed steel sheets. A three-dimensional transient multi-physics numerical model is developed, allowing for the prediction of the bulge formation and the study of its temporal behavior. The model is generalized to account automatically for the transition from partial to complete penetration. Several experimental measurements and observations, such as drilling period, weld pool length, temperature, efficiency, and metallographic cross-sections are used to verify the model and assure the plausibility of the numerical results. The analysis of the calculated temperature and velocity distributions, as well as the evolution of the keyhole geometry, show that the formation of a bulging region strongly depends on the penetration depth of the weld. Based on the numerical results, the bulge is found to occur transiently, having its transition from a slight bulge to a fully developed bulging between penetration depths of 6 mm and 9 mm, respectively.
PublicationHigh-power laser beam welding for thick section steels - new perspectives using electromagnetic systems( 2022)
;Rethmeier, M. ;Gumenyuk, A.Bachmann, M.In recent years, it was shown that the introduction of additional oscillating and permanent magnetic fields to laser beam and laser-arc hybrid welding can bring several beneficial effects. Examples are a contactless weld pool support for metals of high thickness suffering from severe drop-out when being welded conventionally or an enhanced stirring to improve the mixing of added filler material in the depth of the weld pool to guarantee homogeneous resulting mechanical properties of the weld. The latest research results show the applicability to various metal types over a wide range of thicknesses and welding conditions. The observations made were demonstrated in numerous experimental studies and a deep understanding of the interaction of the underlying physical mechanisms was extracted from numerical calculations.
PublicationEffects on the distortion of Inconel 718 components along a hybrid laser-based additive manufacturing process chain using laser powder bed fusion and laser metal deposition( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Düchting, J. ;Petrat, T. ;Krohmer, E. ;Graf, B.Rethmeier, M.The combination of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), known for its geometrical freedom and accuracy, and the nozzle-based laser metal deposition process (LMD), known for its high build-up rates, has great potential to reduce the additive manufacturing times for large metallic parts. For the industrial application of the LPBF-LMD hybrid process chain, it is necessary to investigate the influence of the LMD process on the LPBF substrate. In addition, the build plate material also has a significant impact on the occurrence of distortion along the additive manufacturing process chain. In the literature, steel build plates are often used in laser-based additive manufacturing processes of Inconel 718, since a good metallurgical bonding can be assured whilst reducing costs in the production and restoration of the build plates. This paper examines the distortion caused by LMD material deposition and the influence of the build plate material along the hybrid additive manufacturing process chain. Twin cantilevers are manufactured by LPBF and an additional layer is subsequently deposited with LMD. The distortion is measured in the as-built condition as well as after heat treatment. The effect of different LMD hatch strategies on the distortion is determined. The experiments are conducted using the nickel-base alloy Inconel 718. The results show a significant influence of LMD path strategies on distortion, with shorter tool paths leading to less distortion. The remaining distortion after heat treatment is considerably dependent on the material of the build plate.
PublicationThe Effects of HLAW Parameters for One Side T-Joints in 15 mm Thickness Naval Steel( 2021)
;Churiaque, C. ;Sánchez-Amaya, J.M. ;Porrúa-Lara, M. ;Gumenyuk, A.Rethmeier, M.The present contribution is the first research reporting full penetration HLAW joints in 15 mm thick EH36 steel butt T-welds with square grooves on 2F welding position by single-sided welding. The effects of welding parameters were investigated to increase the quality of the joints. Conditions leading to defect-free full penetration welds fulfilling naval regulations includes a laser power of 12.5 kW, a welding speed of 1.6 m/min and the vertical laser offset distance from the flange of 1 mm. Advanced characterization of selected welds included a microstructural identification by optical microscopy, SEM, and XRD, revealing the presence of acicular, polygonal and Widmanstätten ferrite, lath martensite, and some retained austenite at FZ. Hardness and microhardness mapping tests showed values of 155 HV at base metal and 200 to 380 HV at the fusion zone connecting the web to the flange.
PublicationInfluence of oscillating magnetic field on the keyhole stability in deep penetration laser beam welding( 2021)
;Üstündag, Ö. ;Bakir, N. ;Gumenyuk, A.Rethmeier, M.The stability of the keyhole decreases for deep penetrated high-power laser beam welding. The keyhole tends to collapse with increasing laser power and e.g. keyhole induced porosity can occur. This study deals with the observation of the keyhole during high-power laser beam welding in partial penetration mode by means of a high-speed camera. A butt configuration of 25 mm thick structural steel and transparent quartz glass was used for the experiments. An oscillating magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the welding direction on the root side of the steel plate. The keyhole was highlighted with a coaxial diode laser. It was ascertained that the stability of the keyhole and the weld penetration depth were increased by applying an oscillating magnetic field with an oscillating frequency of 1.2 kHz and a magnetic flux density of 50 mT.
PublicationNumerical Analysis of the Partial Penetration High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick Sheets at High Process Speeds( 2021)
;Artinov, A. ;Meng, X. ;Bachmann, M.Rethmeier, M.The present work is devoted to the numerical analysis of the high-power laser beam welding of thick sheets at different welding speeds. A three-dimensional transient multi-physics numerical model is developed, allowing for the prediction of the keyhole geometry and the final penetration depth. Two ray tracing algorithms are implemented and compared, namely a standard ray tracing approach and an approach using a virtual mesh refinement for a more accurate calculation of the reflection point. Both algorithms are found to provide sufficient accuracy for the prediction of the keyhole depth during laser beam welding with process speeds of up to 1.5 m min-1. However, with the standard algorithm, the penetration depth is underestimated by the model for a process speed of 2.5 m min-1 due to a trapping effect of the laser energy in the top region. In contrast, the virtually refined ray tracing approach results in high accuracy results for process speeds of both 1.5 m min-1 and 2.5 m min-1. A detailed study on the trapping effect is provided, accompanied by a benchmark including a predefined keyhole geometry with typical characteristics for the high-power laser beam welding of thick plates at high process speed, such as deep keyhole, inclined front keyhole wall, and a hump.
PublicationRecommendations for an Open Science approach to welding process research data( 2021)
;Fabry, C. ;Pittner, A. ;Hirthammer, V.Rethmeier, M.The increasing adoption of Open Science principles has been a prevalent topic in the welding science community over the last years. Providing access to welding knowledge in the form of complex and complete datasets in addition to peer-reviewed publications can be identified as an important step to promote knowledge exchange and cooperation. There exist previous efforts on building data models specifically for fusion welding applications; however, a common agreed upon implementation that is used by the community is still lacking. One proven approach in other domains has been the use of an openly accessible and agreed upon file and data format used for archiving and sharing domain knowledge in the form of experimental data. Going into a similar direction, the welding community faces particular practical, technical, and also ideological challenges that are discussed in this paper. Collaboratively building upon previous work with modern tools and platforms, the authors motivate, propose, and outline the use of a common file format specifically tailored to the needs of the welding research community as a complement to other already established Open Science practices. Successfully establishing a culture of openly accessible research data has the potential to significantly stimulate progress in welding research.
PublicationShielded metal arc welding of 9%Ni steel using matching ferritic filler metal( 2021)
;El-Batahgy, A. ;Saiyah, A. ;Khafagi, S. ;Gumenyuk, A. ;Gook, S.Rethmeier, M.Motivated by the tensile strength loss of 9%Ni steel arc welded joints made using Ni-based austenitic filler metals, the feasibility of maintaining the tensile strength using matching ferritic filler metal has been demonstrated. In comparison with shielded metal arc welded joint made using Ni-based austenitic electrode ENiCrMo-6, higher tensile strength comparable to that of the base metal was obtained using matching ferritic electrode. Besides, sufficient impact toughness energies with much lower mismatch were obtained for weld metal and heat-affected zone. Welded joint with a lower mechanical mismatching is of considerable importance for achieving acceptable combination of tensile strength and impact toughness. A better combination of these mechanical properties is ensured by applying a post weld heat treatment.
PublicationInvestigation of the application of a C-ring geometry to validate the stress relief heat treatment simulation of additive manufactured austenitic stainless steel parts via displacement( 2020)
;El-Sari, B. ;Biegler, M.Rethmeier, M.Directed energy deposition is a metal additive manufacturing process that builds parts by joining material in a layer-by-layer fashion on a substrate. Those parts are exposed to rapid thermo-cycles which cause steep stress gradients and the layer-upon-layer manufacturing fosters an anisotropic microstructure, therefore stress relief heat treatment is necessary. The numerical simulation can be used to find suitable parameters for the heat treatment and to reduce the necessary efforts to perform an effective stress relieving. Suitable validation experiments are necessary to verify the results of the numerical simulation. In this paper, a 3D coupled thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the heat treatment of an additive manufactured component to investigate the application of a C-ring geometry for the distortion-based validation of the numerical simulation. Therefore, the C-ring samples were 3D scanned using a structured light 3D scanner to quantify the distortion af ter each process step.
PublicationIn situ determination of the critical straining condition for solidification cracking during laser beam welding( 2020)
;Bakir, N. ;Gumenyuk, A. ;Pavlov, V. ;Volvenko, S.Rethmeier, M.In recent years, laser beam welding has found wide applications in many industrial fields. Solidification cracks are one of the most frequently encountered welding defects that hinder obtaining a safe weld joint. Decades of research have shown that one of the main causes of such cracks is the strain and the strain rate. Obtaining meaningful measurements of these strains has always been a major challenge for scientists, because of the specific environment of the measurement range and the many obstacles, as well as the high temperature and the plasma plume. By applying novel metrology based on optical flow (OF) algorithm, the critical strain conditions for solidification crack formation for the stainless steel 1.4828 in the immediate vicinity of the solidification front was identified. The developed two-dimensional technique allows for obtaining full strain distribution in the hot cracking critical zone.