Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationDependency of martensite start temperature on prior austenite grain size and its influence on welding-induced residual stresses( 2013)
;Heinze, C. ;Pittner, A. ;Rethmeier, M.Babu, S.S.Austenite grain growth during welding is a critical factor for controlling weld microstructure in addition to nominal composition and thermal cycles. Recently, experimental data suggesting a decrease in martensite start temperature with a decrease in prior austenite grain size has been published. However, the actual sensitivity of this phenomenon on residual stresses evolution in the heat-affected zone has not been investigated, yet. Therefore, a numerical model was modified to consider this phenomenon. Numerical simulations were performed for welding of a low-alloy structural steel with minimum yield strength of 355 MPa (S355J2+N) and a heat-resistant steel P91 or 9Cr-1Mo, respectively. The results clarify the influence of prior austenite grain size on the residual stress development and show the importance martensite transformation temperatures and final martensite fraction. Consequently, the residual stress evolution of P91, which completely transforms to martensite while cooling, based on the enhanced model leads to maximum stress differences of 200 MPa in the heat-affected zone.
PublicationThe effect of tack welding on numerically calculated welding-induced distortion( 2012)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.A single-layer pulsed gas metal arc weld of structural steel S355J2+N with a thickness of 5 mm is experimentally and numerically investigated. Two tack welds are considered in the numerical simulation into two different ways. First, the tack welds are represented by elements belonging to the initial material. This implies that the "tack weld material" was not exposed to any thermal load or phase transformation before actual welding was performed. The weld seam is shortened and there is an influence on the stiffness of the whole structure affecting the calculation result. Secondly, the tack welds were simulated as conducted in the experimental welding procedure. The cases considering tack welding are compared to a simulation neglecting tack welding and to the experimental results. The influence of tack welds on the calculated welding-induced distortion is clarified and a contribution to an improved simulation-based prediction of welding-induced distortion is possible by modeling tack welding according to the realistic fabrication procedure.
PublicationNumerical calculation of residual stress development of multi-pass gas metal arc welding under high restraint conditions( 2012)
;Heinze, C. ;Schwenk, C.Rethmeier, M.During welding, residual stresses build-up created by the steep thermal gradient that occurs in the weld zone from localized heating and cooling, and phase transformations appearing in low-alloyed structural steel is inevitable. Welding of rather simple test plates do not cover the actual structural effects, which have to be considered during real component welding. However, the resulting welding-induced residual stress state is highly influenced by the structural characteristics, i.e. restraint conditions, of the welded construction. Therefore, a unique large-scale testing facility providing a specific shrinkage restraint while welding and subsequent cooling was used for the present investigations. Hereby, a six bead multi-pass gas metal arc weld of 20. mm thick structural steel S355J2 + N was welded under shrinkage restraint. The residual stresses were experimentally and numerically investigated, and compared to an analysis of plates welded under force-free support an d free shrinkage conditions.The experimentally determined and calculated residual stresses using both 2D and 3D numerical models are in a good agreement. Furthermore, the influence of a shrinkage restraint on the residual stress distribution is both experimentally and numerically shown for the present test set-up.