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Transferability of ANN-generated parameter sets from welding tracks to 3D-geometries in Directed Energy Deposition

2022-11-04 , Marko, Angelina , Bähring, Stefan , Raute, Maximilian Julius , Biegler, Max , Rethmeier, Michael

Directed energy deposition (DED) has been in industrial use as a coating process for many years. Modern applications include the repair of existing components and additive manufacturing. The main advantages of DED are high deposition rates and low energy input. However, the process is influenced by a variety of parameters affecting the component quality. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) offer the possibility of mapping complex processes such as DED. They can serve as a tool for predicting optimal process parameters and quality characteristics. Previous research only refers to weld beads: a transferability to additively manufactured three-dimensional components has not been investigated. In the context of this work, an ANN is generated based on 86 weld beads. Quality categories (poor, medium, and good) are chosen as target variables to combine several quality features. The applicability of this categorization compared to conventional characteristics is discussed in detail. The ANN predicts the quality category of weld beads with an average accuracy of 81.5%. Two randomly generated parameter sets predicted as “good” by the network are then used to build tracks, coatings, walls, and cubes. It is shown that ANN trained with weld beads are suitable for complex parameter predictions in a limited way.

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Acoustic emission-based process monitoring in the milling of carbon fibre-reinforced plastics

2022 , Uhlmann, E. , Holznagel, Tobias

Milling of fibre-reinforced plastics is a challenging task. The highly abrasive fibres lead to high tool wear and coating failures, which cause increasing process forces and temperatures. Machining with a worn tool, in turn, can result in unwanted workpiece damages such as delamination or fibre protrusion. Reliable monitoring of the process must therefore be able to detect damages to the milling tool and the workpiece alike. The presented process monitoring approach measures the acoustic emission generated by the milling tool cutting edge entering the workpiece with a sensor attached to the tool holder. Specific acoustic emission frequency spectra and waveforms are emitted in the cutting zone for different tool wear states. Coating failures as well as other acoustic emission events due to workpiece damages can be robustly detected and distinguished by feature extraction and signal processing as well. The developed setup, the monitoring parameterisation techniques and signal processing algorithms as well as experimental and monitoring results are presented and discussed in this paper.

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Gear Wheel Finishing with Abrasive Brushing Tools to Improve the Surface Quality of Tooth Flanks for the Industrial Application

2022 , Gülzow, Bernhard , Uhlmann, Eckart

A high surface quality of tooth flanks can improve the service life and the performance of gears, as well as reduce acoustic emissions. However, high demands on the gear geometry pose a challenge for the finishing of tooth flank surfaces because the dimensional accuracy that can be achieved with modern grinding processes must not be impaired by the finishing process. A preceding study has shown fundamentally that profiled abrasive brushing tools can be used to improve the quality of individual tooth flank surfaces. Due to the integration into the grinding machine, it represents a promising alternative to common finishing applications. Before the process can be used in an industrial environment, process reliability and tool life must be examined. For this purpose, complete reference gearwheels (39 × 10) were finished with the brushing tools. It could be shown that the surface roughness can be reliably reduced by ΔRa ≈ 0.2 µm by using a single brush for an entire gearwheel without changing the gear geometry. In addition to the influence of the tool specifications on the work result, the influence of the initial roughness after grinding was considered in particular. It was found that the achievable surface roughness depends significantly on the depth of the grinding grooves, as these are retained as desired, while the roughness peaks are fully smoothed. Furthermore, a device for the machine-integrated profiling and dressing of brushing tools was successfully designed, implemented, and tested.

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Residual stress assessment during cutting tool lifetime of CVD-diamond coated indexable inserts

2022 , Uhlmann, E. , Hinzmann, Daniel

Insufficient coating adhesion limits reproducibility regarding tool lifetime as well as workpiece quality during the application of CVD-diamond coated cutting tools. Depending on the combination of tungsten carbide substrate material, coating thickness as well as coating morphology, individual residual stress conditions exist within CVD-diamond coated cutting tool specifications. The application of these tools is accompanied by coating delamination as primary cutting tool failure. The tool lifetime of the respective cutting tool composition depends on the corresponding residual stress condition until crack development within the CVD-diamond coating initiates tool failure. During external cylindrical turning of hypereutectic aluminium silicon alloy AlSi17Cu4Mg-T6 the residual stress condition of a CVD-diamond coated cutting tool is assessed along the cutting edge, the rake face as well as flank face throughout the respective tool lifetime. Consequently, the progression of the residual stress condition until cutting tool failure regarding coating delamination is observed. During the tool lifetime of the investigated CVD-diamond cutting tools, compressive residual stress ∆σR,c shifts to tensile residual stress ∆σR,t underneath the cutting edge corner. The approximated residual stress difference of ∆σR ≈ 5 GPa indicates stress peak relaxation processes, such as crack initiation, within the CVD-diamond coating.

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Introducing readiness scales for effective reuse of open source hardware

2022 , Mies, Robert , Häuer, Martin , Hassan, Mehera

Open source hardware (OSH) describes physical products that allow for "anyone to study, modify, produce, and distribute them". While OSH principles aim to support design reuse, recent studies have challenged whether this is properly applied in practice. Therefore, this article delivers an assessment scheme that allows to identify the readiness of OSH designs for reuse. Testing the scheme on OSH ventilator designs collected by the Publnv ventilator project showed overall good usefulness of the scheme and emphasised the need of unambiguous assessment scales based on common standards. Less than two thirds of Publnv's listed projects fulfilled minimum criteria for openness.

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Micro-texture dependent temperature distribution of CVD diamond thick film cutting tools during turning of Ti-6Al-4V

2022 , Uhlmann, Eckart , Schröter, D. , Gärtner, Eric

Machining titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V results in a high thermomechanical load on cutting tools and consequently short tool lifes. With respect to a necessary reduction of the resulting cutting tool temperatures, ultrashort pulse (USP) laser fabricated micro-textured rake faces offer direct supply of cooling lubricant into the cutting zone and lead to a reduced heat induction. As a result, micro-textured CVD diamond thick film cutting tools are also capable of machining high-performance materials due to reduced contact temperatures. In the scope of the research, the resulting temperature distribution for micro-textured rake faces will be compared under both dry and wet process conditions. Measurements show a reduction of the resulting cutting tool temperatures of Δϑt = 27.9 % using micro-textured cutting tools compared to non-textured cutting tools. A validated simulation provides valuable information about the contact temperatures enabling a specific development of the micro-texture geometry. As a result, a reduction of the contact temperature between chip and rake face by ΔϑT = 24.7 % was possible.

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Revealing dynamic processes in laser powder bed fusion with in situ X-ray diffraction at PETRA III

2022 , Krohmer, E. , Schmeiser, F. , Wahlmann, B. , Rosigkeit, J. , Graf, G. , Spoerk-Erdely, P. , Clemens, H. , Staron, P. , Körner, C. , Reimers, W. , Uhlmann, Eckart

The high flux combined with the high energy of the monochromatic synchrotron radiation available at modern synchrotron facilities offers vast possibilities for fundamental research on metal processing technologies. Especially in the case of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), an additive manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of complex-shaped metallic parts, in situ methods are necessary to understand the highly dynamic thermal, mechanical, and metallurgical processes involved in the creation of the parts. At PETRA III, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, a customized LPBF system featuring all essential functions of an industrial LPBF system, is used for in situ X-ray diffraction research. Three use cases with different experimental setups and research questions are presented to demonstrate research opportunities. First, the influence of substrate pre-heating and a complex scan pattern on the strain and internal stress progression during the manufacturing of Inconel 625 parts is investigated. Second, a study on the nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 reveals the formation and dissolution of γ′ precipitates depending on the scan pattern in different part locations. Third, phase transitions during melting and solidification of an intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloy are examined, and the advantages of using thin platelet-shaped specimens to resolve the phase components are discussed. The presented cases give an overview of in situ X-ray diffraction experiments at PETRA III for research on the LPBF technology and provide information on specific experimental procedures.

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A study of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on keyhole dynamics and defect mitigation in laser beam welding

2022 , Meng, X. , Bachmann, M. , Artinov, A. , Rethmeier, Michael

In this paper, the highly transient keyhole dynamics, e.g., laser absorption, keyhole geometry, and fluctuation, etc., under a magnetic field are investigated using an experimental approach and multi-physical modeling. The model provides accurate predictions to the variation of penetration depth and weld pool profiles caused by the MHD effect, which is validated by the measurements of optical micrographs and in-situ metal/glass observation. The micro-X-ray computed tomography shows a remarkable reduction of keyhole-induced porosity with the magnetic field. The correlation between the porosity mitigation and the weld pool dynamics influenced by the magnetic field is built comprehensively. It is found that the magnetic field gives a direct impact on the laser energy absorption at the keyhole front wall by changing the protrusion movement. The porosity mitigation comes from multiple physical aspects, including keyhole stabilization, widening of the bubble floating channel, and the electromagnetic expulsive force. Their contributions vary according to the bubble size. The findings provide a deeper insight into the relationship between electromagnetic parameters, keyhole dynamics, and suppression of keyhole-relevant defects.

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Prediction of the Roughness Reduction in Centrifugal Disc Finishing of Additive Manufactured Parts Based on Discrete Element Method

2022 , Kopp, Marco , Uhlmann, Eckart

One major drawback of additive manufacturing is the poor surface quality of parts, which negatively affects mechanical and tribological properties. Therefore, a surface finishing is necessary in most cases. Due to a high material removal rate, centrifugal disc finishing is a promising mass finishing operation for an effective surface finishing of additive manufactured parts. However, due to machining the workpieces in a freely movable manner, the process is hardly controllable, and the process design is often based on time-consuming and cost-intensive trial-and-error approaches. Especially when it comes to the machining of complex-shaped workpieces, finishing results are barely predictable. Therefore, the aim of this study is to set up a numerical simulation of the centrifugal disc finishing based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) to predict finishing results. A procedure to determine the required DEM input parameters is presented and the simulation was validated using a freely movable force sensor. The results of the finishing experiments with additive manufactured workpieces made of Ti-6Al-4V were correlated with the simulated results. The derived correlation was used to predict local differences in the roughness reduction, which occurred when finishing workpieces with a limited accessibility to the surface. As a result, it is concluded that the complex relationship between the type of media, the accessibility to the surface, and the achievable finishing results can be modeled using the DEM.

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Influence of superimposed low frequency oscillations on single-pass honing of long-chipping steel

2022 , Uhlmann, E. , Rozek, André

Single-pass honing is used as a finishing process to meet high demands regarding form and dimensional accuracy of drilled bores. The disadvantages of single-pass honing compared to the conventional long-stroke honing are high process forces and torques as well as an increased risk of chip space clogging of the abrasive stones. A significant reduction in process forces and torques can be achieved by superimposing the axial movement with oscillations. In this work the kinematic basics of different oscillation parameters and their effects on single-pass honing of long-chipping steel are analyzed. It can be concluded that by superimposing low frequency oscillations in single-pass honing, the process forces and torques as well as the specific energy consumption can be reduced significantly without a decline in surface quality and form accuracy.