Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
PublicationHybrid laser-arc welding of laser- and plasma-cut 20-mm-thick structural steelsIt is already known that the laser beam welding (LBW) or hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) processes are sensitive to manufacturing tolerances such as gaps and misalignment of the edges, especially at welding of thick-walled steels due to its narrow beam diameter. Therefore, the joining parts preferably have to be milled. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality, the gap and the misalignment of edges on the weld seam quality of hybrid laser-arc welded 20-mm-thick structural steel plates which were prepared by laser and plasma cutting. Single-pass welds were conducted in butt joint configuration. An AC magnet was used as a contactless backing. It was positioned under the workpiece during the welding process to prevent sagging. The profile of the edges and the gap between the workpieces were measured before welding by a profile scanner or a digital camera, respectively. With a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW, the single-pass welds could be performed. A gap bridgeability up to 1 mm at laser-cut and 2 mm at plasma-cut samples could be reached respectively. Furthermore, a misalignment of the edges up to 2 mm could be welded in a single pass. The new findings may eliminate the need for cost and time-consuming preparation of the edges.
PublicationHybrid Laser-Arc Welding of Thick-Walled, Closed, Circumferential Pipe WeldsThe application of hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) for joining closed circumferential welds is a challenge due to the high risk of forming a defective overlap area with a shrinkage void or solidification cracks in the material thickness. A series of HLAW experiments were performed to understand the development of a faulty overlap area when closing the circumferential weld. Welding trials on flat specimens and pipe segments were supported by numerical analyses in which the thermomechanical behavior of the welds in the overlap area was investigated. Different process control strategies were tested, including variations in defocusing levels and the overlap length. The newly developed HLAW head, including laser optics with a motor-driven collimation system, made it possible to defocus the laser beam during welding without disturbing the stability of the welding process. High-level defocusing of the laser beam of more than 40 mm relative to the specimen surface with a resulting beam diameter of > 2.9 mm, and in combination with a short overlap length of 15 mm, was promising with respect to the formation of a desired cup-shaped weld profile that is resistant to solidification cracks.
PublicationVerfahren zum fehlerfreien Laserstrahl-Hybridschweißen von geschlossenen RundnähtenIn diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen eines Verfahrens zum fehlerfreien Laserstrahl-Hybridschweißen von geschlossenen Rundnähten vorgestellt. Das Verfahren zielt auf die Vermeidung von Schweißimperfektionen im Überlappbereich einer laserstrahlhybridgeschweißten Rundnaht. Eine Strategie der Prozessführung beim Schließen der Rundnaht wurde entwickelt, mit der ein fehlerfreier Überlappbereich durch die Kontrolle der Erstarrungsbedingungen am Schweißnahtende erreicht wird.
PublicationMethod for defect-free hybrid laser-arc welding of closed circumferential weldsThis paper presents investigation results of a process for defect-free hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) of closed circumferential welds. The process aims to avoid weld imperfections in the overlap area of a HLAW circumferential weld. A process control strategy for closing the circumferential weld was developed to achieve a defect-free overlap region by controlling the solidification conditions at the end of the weld. The controlled heat flow is achieved by adjusting the parameters of both welding processes involved, the laser beam as well as gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Experimental investigations were carried out on 12 mm to 15 mm thick tube sections. The influence of process parameters such as the laser power ramp, the change in magnification scale and the defocusing of the laser beam on the solidification conditions at the end of the circumferential weld was investigated to find an optimum strategy for ramping out the process energy. Within the framework of the experimental studies, it was demonstrated that defocusing the laser beam in the range between 60 mm and 100 mm over a short run-out area of the weld of approximately 15 mm led to a significantly better weld formation in the overlap area. A favorable cup-shaped weld shape could be achieved without a tendency to crack. The laser optics with a motor-driven lens system made it possible to increase the laser beam diameter without changing the position of the GMAW arc relative to the component surface.
PublicationLaserstrahlschweißen von additiv gefertigten Bauteilen: Einsetzbarkeit bestehender Bewertungsvorschriften( 2021)
;Jokisch, Torsten ; ;Üstündag, Ömer ;Bei der additiven Fertigung im Pulverbett ist die Bauteilgröße durch den Bauraum begrenzt. Das Verbindungsschweißen additiv gefertigter Teile bietet eine Möglichkeit diese Größenbegrenzung aufzuheben. Aufgrund des spezifischen Spannungs- und Gefügezustandes im additiv aufgebauten Material ist jedoch unklar, inwiefern bestehende Bewertungsvorschriften des Verbindungsschweißens auch für Schweißnähte an additiven Bauteilen geeignet sind. Dies wird anhand des Laserstrahlschweißens von additiv gefertigten Rohrverbindungen untersucht. Die Schweißnähte werden mittels visueller Prüfung, metallographischer Untersuchungen sowie Computertomographie ausgewertet. Die festgestellten Fehlerarten sind vergleichbar zu konventionellen Bauteilen. Dies ist ein Indikator dafür, dass bestehende Bewertungsvorschriften die möglichen auftretenden Defekte auch für Schweißnähte an additiven Bauteilen abbilden.
PublicationAvoidance of end crater imperfections at high-power laser beam welding of closed circumferential welds( 2020)
; ;Üstündag, Ömer ;The present work deals with the development of a strategy for the prevention of end crater defects in high-power laser welding of thick-walled circumferential welds. A series of experiments were performed to understand the influence of the welding parameters on the formation of end crater defects such as pores, cracks, root excess weld metal and shrinkage cavities in the overlap area. An abrupt switch-off of the laser power while closing the circumferential weld leads to a formation of a hole which passes through the whole welded material thickness. A laser power ramp-down causes solidification cracks which are initiated on the transition from full-penetration mode to partial penetration. Defocusing the laser beam led to promising results in terms of avoiding end crater defects. Cracks and pores in the overlap area could be effectively avoided by using defocusing techniques. A strategy for avoiding of end crater imperfections was tested on flat specimens of steel grade S355 J2 with a wall thickness of between 8 and 10 mm and then transferred on the 10 mm thick pipe sections made of high-strength pipeline steel API5L-X100Q.