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  • Publication
    In-situ distortions in LMD additive manufacturing walls can be measured with digital image correlation and predicted using numerical simulations
    ( 2018) ;
    Graf, Benjamin
    Rethmeier, Michael
    Distortions in Additive Manufacturing (AM) Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) occur in the newly-built component due to rapid heating and solidification and can lead to shape deviations and cracking. This paper presents a novel approach to quantify the distortions experimentally and to use the results in numerical simulation validation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied together with optical filters to measure in-situ distortions directly on a wall geometry produced with LMD. The wall shows cyclic expansion and shrinking with the edges bending inward and the top of the sample exhibiting a slight u-shape as residual distortions. Subsequently, a structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the experiment is established, calibrated against experimental temperature profiles and used to predict the in-situ distortions of the sample. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results reveals a good agreement in length direction of the sample and quantitative deviations in height direction, which are attributed to the material model used. The suitability of the novel experimental approach for measurements on an AM sample is shown and the potential for the validated numerical model as a predictive tool to reduce trial-and-error and improve part quality is evaluated.