Now showing 1 - 10 of 36
  • Publication
    Retaining Mechanical Properties of GMA-Welded Joints of 9%Ni Steel Using Experimentally Produced Matching Ferritic Filler Metal
    ( 2022-11-30)
    El-batahgy, Abdel-monem
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    Elkousy, Mohamed Raafat
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    Al-Rahman, Ahmed Abd
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    Motivated by the loss of tensile strength in 9%Ni steel arc-welded joints performed using commercially available Ni-based austenitic filler metals, the viability of retaining tensile strength using an experimentally produced matching ferritic filler metal was confirmed. Compared to the austenitic Ni-based filler metal (685 MPa), higher tensile strength in gas metal arc (GMA) welded joints was achieved using a ferritic filler metal (749 MPa) due to its microstructure being similar to the base metal (645 MPa). The microstructure of hard martensite resulted in an impact energy of 71 J (−196 °C), which was two times higher than the specified minimum value of ≥34 J. The tensile and impact strength of the welded joint is affected not only by its microstructure, but also by the degree of its mechanical mismatch depending on the type of filler metal. Welds with a harder microstructure and less mechanical mismatch are important for achieving an adequate combination of tensile strength and notched impact strength. This is achievable with the cost-effective ferritic filler metal. A more desirable combination of mechanical properties is guaranteed by applying low preheating temperature (200 °C), which is a more practicable and economical solution compared to the high post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperature (580 °C) suggested by other research.
  • Publication
    Laserstrahlhybridschweißen von Türmen für Windkraftanlagen
    ( 2022-08-29)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
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    Knöfel, Frieder
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    Das Laserstrahlhybridschweißen ist beim Schweißen von Türmen für Windkraftanlagen eine Alternative zum Unterpulverschweißen von Dickblechen in Mehrlagentechnik und bietet hier ökonomische und ökologische Vorteile. Der industrielle Einsatz des Verfahrens ist jedoch durch prozessspezifische Herausforderungen eingeschränkt. Die im Beitrag beschriebene kontaktlose elektromagnetische Badstütze dient zur Erweiterung des Verfahrenspotenzials im Dickblechbereich >15 mm.
  • Publication
    Joining 30 mm Thick Shipbuilding Steel Plates EH36 Using a Process Combination of Hybrid Laser Arc Welding and Submerged Arc Welding
    This article presents a cost-effective and reliable method for welding 30 mm thick sheets of shipbuilding steel EH36. The method proposes to perform butt welding in a two-run technique using hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW). The HLAW is performed as a partial penetration weld with a penetration depth of approximately 25 mm. The SAW is carried out as a second run on the opposite side. With a SAW penetration depth of 8 mm, the weld cross-section is closed with the reliable intersection of both passes. The advantages of the proposed welding method are: no need for forming of the HLAW root; the SAW pass can effectively eliminate pores in the HLAW root; the high stability of the welding process regarding the preparation quality of the weld edges. Plasma cut edges can be welded without lack of fusion defects. The weld quality achieved is confirmed by destructive tests.
  • Publication
    Hybrid laser-arc welding of laser- and plasma-cut 20-mm-thick structural steels
    ( 2022)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
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    It is already known that the laser beam welding (LBW) or hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) processes are sensitive to manufacturing tolerances such as gaps and misalignment of the edges, especially at welding of thick-walled steels due to its narrow beam diameter. Therefore, the joining parts preferably have to be milled. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality, the gap and the misalignment of edges on the weld seam quality of hybrid laser-arc welded 20-mm-thick structural steel plates which were prepared by laser and plasma cutting. Single-pass welds were conducted in butt joint configuration. An AC magnet was used as a contactless backing. It was positioned under the workpiece during the welding process to prevent sagging. The profile of the edges and the gap between the workpieces were measured before welding by a profile scanner or a digital camera, respectively. With a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW, the single-pass welds could be performed. A gap bridgeability up to 1 mm at laser-cut and 2 mm at plasma-cut samples could be reached respectively. Furthermore, a misalignment of the edges up to 2 mm could be welded in a single pass. The new findings may eliminate the need for cost and time-consuming preparation of the edges.
  • Publication
    Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of Thick-Walled, Closed, Circumferential Pipe Welds
    ( 2022)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
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    The application of hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) for joining closed circumferential welds is a challenge due to the high risk of forming a defective overlap area with a shrinkage void or solidification cracks in the material thickness. A series of HLAW experiments were performed to understand the development of a faulty overlap area when closing the circumferential weld. Welding trials on flat specimens and pipe segments were supported by numerical analyses in which the thermomechanical behavior of the welds in the overlap area was investigated. Different process control strategies were tested, including variations in defocusing levels and the overlap length. The newly developed HLAW head, including laser optics with a motor-driven collimation system, made it possible to defocus the laser beam during welding without disturbing the stability of the welding process. High-level defocusing of the laser beam of more than 40 mm relative to the specimen surface with a resulting beam diameter of > 2.9 mm, and in combination with a short overlap length of 15 mm, was promising with respect to the formation of a desired cup-shaped weld profile that is resistant to solidification cracks.
  • Publication
    Verfahren zum fehlerfreien Laserstrahl-Hybridschweißen von geschlossenen Rundnähten
    In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse der Untersuchungen eines Verfahrens zum fehlerfreien Laserstrahl-Hybridschweißen von geschlossenen Rundnähten vorgestellt. Das Verfahren zielt auf die Vermeidung von Schweißimperfektionen im Überlappbereich einer laserstrahlhybridgeschweißten Rundnaht. Eine Strategie der Prozessführung beim Schließen der Rundnaht wurde entwickelt, mit der ein fehlerfreier Überlappbereich durch die Kontrolle der Erstarrungsbedingungen am Schweißnahtende erreicht wird.
  • Publication
    Laserstrahlschweißen von additiv gefertigten Bauteilen: Einsetzbarkeit bestehender Bewertungsvorschriften
    ( 2021)
    Jokisch, Torsten
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    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bei der additiven Fertigung im Pulverbett ist die Bauteilgröße durch den Bauraum begrenzt. Das Verbindungsschweißen additiv gefertigter Teile bietet eine Möglichkeit diese Größenbegrenzung aufzuheben. Aufgrund des spezifischen Spannungs- und Gefügezustandes im additiv aufgebauten Material ist jedoch unklar, inwiefern bestehende Bewertungsvorschriften des Verbindungsschweißens auch für Schweißnähte an additiven Bauteilen geeignet sind. Dies wird anhand des Laserstrahlschweißens von additiv gefertigten Rohrverbindungen untersucht. Die Schweißnähte werden mittels visueller Prüfung, metallographischer Untersuchungen sowie Computertomographie ausgewertet. Die festgestellten Fehlerarten sind vergleichbar zu konventionellen Bauteilen. Dies ist ein Indikator dafür, dass bestehende Bewertungsvorschriften die möglichen auftretenden Defekte auch für Schweißnähte an additiven Bauteilen abbilden.
  • Publication
    Method for defect-free hybrid laser-arc welding of closed circumferential welds
    This paper presents investigation results of a process for defect-free hybrid laser arc welding (HLAW) of closed circumferential welds. The process aims to avoid weld imperfections in the overlap area of a HLAW circumferential weld. A process control strategy for closing the circumferential weld was developed to achieve a defect-free overlap region by controlling the solidification conditions at the end of the weld. The controlled heat flow is achieved by adjusting the parameters of both welding processes involved, the laser beam as well as gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. Experimental investigations were carried out on 12 mm to 15 mm thick tube sections. The influence of process parameters such as the laser power ramp, the change in magnification scale and the defocusing of the laser beam on the solidification conditions at the end of the circumferential weld was investigated to find an optimum strategy for ramping out the process energy. Within the framework of the experimental studies, it was demonstrated that defocusing the laser beam in the range between 60 mm and 100 mm over a short run-out area of the weld of approximately 15 mm led to a significantly better weld formation in the overlap area. A favorable cup-shaped weld shape could be achieved without a tendency to crack. The laser optics with a motor-driven lens system made it possible to increase the laser beam diameter without changing the position of the GMAW arc relative to the component surface.
  • Publication
    Neueste Entwicklungen im Bereich des Hochleistungslaserstrahl- und Hybridschweißens von hohen Blechdicken
    ( 2020)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
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    Bislang kommt das Laserstrahlschweißen bzw. Laserhybridschweißen hauptsächlich bei Dickblechen mit einer Wandstärke von bis zu 15 mm zum Einsatz. Für Anwendungen über 20 mm war dieses Verfahren aufgrund einiger Herausforderung bisher nur bedingt realisierbar. Ein von der Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM) entwickelte elektromagnetische Schmelzbadunterstützung ermöglicht nun ein einlagiges Schweißen von bis zu 30 mm Wandstärke.
  • Publication
    Hybrid laser-arc welding of thick-walled pipe segments with optimization of the end crater
    The study deals with the application of the high-power hybrid-laser arc welding process on up to 15 mm thick pipe segments with the intention to avoid end crater imperfections during closing of the circumferential welds, where the pipes were turned during welding in 1G- and 2G-positions. Different techniques such as laser power ramp-down, abrupt switch-off of the laser power and change of the magnification of the laser spot diameter and defocusing of the laser beam relative to the workpiece were tested to remove the laser energy from the process. It could be shown that a high defocusing of the optic system above 40 mm with a resulting beam diameter > 2.9 mm in a short overlap length of approx. 20 mm leads to the formation of a cup-shaped weld seam, which is preferred for avoidance of cracks and pores in the end crater. A laser optics with motor-driven lens system was used for the welding experiments to defocuse the laser beam without changing the position of the arc.