Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationMicrostructure of Inconel 718 parts with constant mass energy input manufactured with direct energy deposition( 2019)
;Petrat, Torsten ; ;Graf, BenjaminThe laser-based direct energy deposition (DED) as a technology for additive manufacturing allows the production of near net shape components. Industrial applications require a stable process to ensure reproducible quality. Instabilities in the manufacturing process can lead to faulty components which do not meet the required properties. The DED process is adjusted by various parameters such as laser power, velocity, powder mass flow and spot diameter, which interact with each other. A frequently used comparative parameter in welding is the energy per unit length and is calculated from the laser power and the velocity in laser welding. The powder per unit length comparative parameter in the DED process has also be considered, because this filler material absorbs energy in addition to the base material. This paper deals with the influence of mass energy as a comparative parameter for determining the properties of additively manufactured parts. The same energy per unit length of 60 J/mm as well as the same powder per unit length of 7.2 mg/mm can be adjusted with different parameter sets. The energy per unit length and the powder per unit length determine the mass energy. The laser power is varied within the experiments between 400 W and 900 W. Energy per unit length and powder per unit length are kept constant by adjusting velocity and powder mass flow. Using the example of Inconel 718, experiments are carried out with the determined parameter sets. In a first step, individual tracks are produced and analyzed by means of micro section. The geometry of the tracks shows differences in height and width. In addition, the increasing laser power leads to a higher dilution of the base material. To determine the suitability of the parameters for additive manufacturing use, the individual tracks are used to build up parts with a square base area of 20×20 mm². An investigation by Archimedean principle shows a higher porosity with lower laser power. By further analysis of the micro sections, at low laser power, connection errors occur between the tracks. The results show that laser power, velocity and powder mass flow must be considered in particular, because a constant mass energy can lead to different geometric as well as microscopic properties.
PublicationHeat treatment of SLM-LMD hybrid components( 2019)
; ;Düchting, Jan ;Petrat, Torsten ;Graf, BenjaminAdditive manufacturing is no longer just used for the production of prototypes but already found its way into the industrial production. However, the fabrication of massive metallic parts with high geometrical complexity is still too time-consuming to be economically viable. The combination of the powder bed-based selective laser melting process (SLM), known for its geometrical freedom and accuracy, and the nozzle-based laser metal deposition process (LMD), known for its high build-up rates, has great potential to reduce the process duration. For the industrial application of the SLM-LMD hybrid process chain it is necessary to investigate the interaction of the processes and its effect on the material properties to guarantee part quality and prevent component failure. Therefore, hybrid components are manufactured and examined before and after the heat treatment regarding the microstructure and the hardness in the SLM-LMD transition zone. The experiments are conducted using the nickel-based alloy Inconel 718.
PublicationStrategien zur Erreichung eines konstanten Volumenaufbaus bei der additiven Fertigung mittels Laser-Pulver-AuftragschweißenDer Einsatz von Hochleistungswerkstoffen verlangt nach einer hohen Endformnähe der zu fertigenden Bauteile, um den Aufwand und somit die Kosten für Materialeinsatz und Nachbearbeitung möglichst gering zu halten. Der additive Einsatz in Form des Laser-Pulver-Auftragschweißens bietet hierfür durch den gezielten Materialauftrag ein hohes Potential. Herausforderungen bestehen in Bereichen der Vorhersagbarkeit und der Reproduzierbarkeit des Materialauftrages, sowie der Fertigungszeit. Unterschiedliche Einflüsse bei der Schichterzeugung führen dabei zu Abweichungen von der Soll-Geometrie. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen behandeln den Einfluss von Spurgeometrie, Spurüberlappung, Verfahrweg und Aufbaureihenfolge auf die entstehende Bauteilform. Die Teilung einer Lage in Rand- und Kernbereich ermöglicht einen konturangepassten Verfahrweg und eine Erhöhung der Endformnähe innerhalb einer Ebene. Die Verwendung unterschiedlicher Spurgrößen bei der Bauteilerzeugung verdeutlicht die Möglichkeiten einer hohen Auftragsrate bei gleichzeitig hoher Formgenauigkeit. Bereits kleine Unterschiede beim Materialauftrag zwischen Kern- und Randbereichen, Start- und Endpunkten sowie in Bereichen des Richtungswechsels führen aufgrund von Fehlerfortpflanzung nach mehreren Lagen zu Abweichungen in der Aufbaurichtung. Kompensierungen mittels angepasster Baustrategien werden aufgezeigt und diskutiert. Die Nickelbasislegierung Inconel 718, die Titanlegierung Ti-6Al-4V sowie der austenitische Stahl 316L sind Bestandteil der vorliegenden Untersuchungen. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse verdeutlichen das Potenzial einer angepassten Aufbaustrategie zur reproduzierbaren Erzeugung von Bauteilen am Beispiel unterschiedlicher Körpergeometrien.
PublicationLaser metal deposition as repair technology for a gas turbine burner made of Inconel 718Maintenance, repair and overhaul of components are of increasing interest for parts of high complexity and expensive manufacturing costs. In this paper a production process for laser metal deposition is presented, and used to repair a gas turbine burner of Inconel 718. Different parameters for defined track geometries were determined to attain a near net shape deposition with consistent build-up rate for changing wall thicknesses over the manufacturing process. Spot diameter, powder feed rate, welding velocity and laser power were changed as main parameters for a different track size. An optimal overlap rate for a constant layer height was used to calculate the best track size for a fitting layer width similar to the part dimension. Deviations in width and height over the whole build-up process were detected and customized build-up strategies for the 3D sequences were designed. The results show the possibility of a near net shape repair by using different track geometries with laser metal deposition.
PublicationCombined laser additive manufacturing with powderbed and powder nozzle for turbine parts( 2016)
;Graf, Benjamin ;Schuch, Michael ;Petrat, Torsten ;Metal additive manufacturing is often based on laser beam processes like Laser Metal Fusion (LMF) or Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). The LMF process is in particular suitable for very complex geometries. However build rate, part volume and material flexibility are limited in LMF. In contrast, LMD achieves higher deposition rates, less restricted part sizes and the possibility to change the material composition during the build-up process. On the other hand, due to the lower spatial precision of the material deposition process, the complexity of geometries is limited. Therefore, combined manufacturing with both LMF and LMD has the potential to utilize the respective advantages of both technologies. In this paper, combined additive manufacturing with LMF and LMD is described for Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. First, lattice structures with different wall thickness and void sizes are built with LMF. The influence of LMD material deposition on these LMF-structures is examined regarding metallurgical impact and distortion. Cross-sections, x-ray computer tomography and 3D-scanning results are shown. For the titanium alloy specimen, oxygen and Nitrogen content in the deposited material are analysed to evaluate the LMD shielding gas atmosphere. The results are used to develop guidelines for a LMD build-up strategy on LMF substrates. With these findings, a gas turbine burner is manufactured as reality test for the combined approach.