Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationCharacterization of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Multilayer Laser Powder-Based Directed Energy Deposition( 2022)
;Ávila Calderón, Luis Alexander ;Graf, Benjamin ;Rehmer, Birgit ;Petrat, Torsten ;Skrotzki, BirgitLaser powder-based directed energy deposition (DED-L) is increasingly being used in additive manufacturing (AM). As AM technology, DED-L must consider specific challenges. It must achieve uniform volume growth over hundreds of layers and avoid heat buildup of the deposited material. Herein, Ti-6Al-4V is fabricated using an approach that addresses these challenges and is relevant in terms of transferability to DED-L applications in AM. The assessment of the obtained properties and the discussion of their relationship to the process conditions and resulting microstructure are presented. The quality of the manufacturing process is proven in terms of the reproducibility of properties between individual blanks and with respect to the building height. The characterization demonstrates that excellent mechanical properties are achieved at room temperature and at 400 C.
PublicationMicrostructure of Inconel 718 parts with constant mass energy input manufactured with direct energy deposition( 2019)
;Petrat, Torsten ; ;Graf, BenjaminThe laser-based direct energy deposition (DED) as a technology for additive manufacturing allows the production of near net shape components. Industrial applications require a stable process to ensure reproducible quality. Instabilities in the manufacturing process can lead to faulty components which do not meet the required properties. The DED process is adjusted by various parameters such as laser power, velocity, powder mass flow and spot diameter, which interact with each other. A frequently used comparative parameter in welding is the energy per unit length and is calculated from the laser power and the velocity in laser welding. The powder per unit length comparative parameter in the DED process has also be considered, because this filler material absorbs energy in addition to the base material. This paper deals with the influence of mass energy as a comparative parameter for determining the properties of additively manufactured parts. The same energy per unit length of 60 J/mm as well as the same powder per unit length of 7.2 mg/mm can be adjusted with different parameter sets. The energy per unit length and the powder per unit length determine the mass energy. The laser power is varied within the experiments between 400 W and 900 W. Energy per unit length and powder per unit length are kept constant by adjusting velocity and powder mass flow. Using the example of Inconel 718, experiments are carried out with the determined parameter sets. In a first step, individual tracks are produced and analyzed by means of micro section. The geometry of the tracks shows differences in height and width. In addition, the increasing laser power leads to a higher dilution of the base material. To determine the suitability of the parameters for additive manufacturing use, the individual tracks are used to build up parts with a square base area of 20×20 mm². An investigation by Archimedean principle shows a higher porosity with lower laser power. By further analysis of the micro sections, at low laser power, connection errors occur between the tracks. The results show that laser power, velocity and powder mass flow must be considered in particular, because a constant mass energy can lead to different geometric as well as microscopic properties.
PublicationHeat treatment of SLM-LMD hybrid components( 2019)
; ;Düchting, Jan ;Petrat, Torsten ;Graf, BenjaminAdditive manufacturing is no longer just used for the production of prototypes but already found its way into the industrial production. However, the fabrication of massive metallic parts with high geometrical complexity is still too time-consuming to be economically viable. The combination of the powder bed-based selective laser melting process (SLM), known for its geometrical freedom and accuracy, and the nozzle-based laser metal deposition process (LMD), known for its high build-up rates, has great potential to reduce the process duration. For the industrial application of the SLM-LMD hybrid process chain it is necessary to investigate the interaction of the processes and its effect on the material properties to guarantee part quality and prevent component failure. Therefore, hybrid components are manufactured and examined before and after the heat treatment regarding the microstructure and the hardness in the SLM-LMD transition zone. The experiments are conducted using the nickel-based alloy Inconel 718.
PublicationHighspeed-plasma-laser-cladding of thin wear resistance coatings: A process approach as a hybrid metal deposition-technology( 2019)
; ;Petrat, Torsten ;Graf, BenjaminPlasma-Transferred-Arc (PTA) welding is a process that enables high deposition rates, but also causes increased thermal load on the component. Laser metal deposition (LMD) welding, on the other hand, reaches a high level of precision and thus achieves comparatively low deposition rates, which can lead to high processing costs. Combining laser and arc energy aims to exploit the respective advantages of both technologies. In this study, a novel approach of this process combination is presented using a PTA system and a 2 kW disk laser. The energy sources are combined in a common process zone as a high-speed plasma laser cladding technology (HPLC), which achieves process speeds of 10 m/min at deposition rates of 6.6 kg/h and an energy per unit length of 39 J/mm.
PublicationBuild-up strategies for laser metal deposition in additive manufacturing( 2018)
;Petrat, Torsten ;Graf, Benjamin ;Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as a technology for additive manufacturing allows the production of large components outside of closed working chambers. Industrial applications require a stable process as well as a constant deposition of the filler material in order to ensure uniform volume growth and reproducible mechanical properties. This paper deals with the influence of travel path strategies on temperature profile and material deposition. Meandering and spiral hatching strategies are used in the center as well as in the edge of a specimen. The temperature is measured with thermocouples attatched to the backside of the specimen. The tests are carried out on the materials S235JR and 316L. The results show a strong dependence of the maximum temperatures on the travel path strategy and the welding position on the component.
Publication3D laser metal deposition: Process steps for additive manufacturing( 2018)
;Graf, Benjamin ;Marko, Angelina ;Petrat, Torsten ;Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an established technology for two-dimensional surface coatings. It offers high deposition rates, high material flexibility, and the possibility to deposit material on existing components. Due to these features, LMD has been increasingly applied for additive manufacturing of 3D structures in recent years. Compared to previous coating applications, additive manufacturing of 3D structures leads to new challenges regarding LMD process knowledge. In this paper, the process steps for LMD as additive manufacturing technology are described. The experiments are conducted using titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. Only the LMD nozzle is used to create a shielding gas atmosphere. This ensures the high geometric flexibility needed for additive manufacturing, although issues with the restricted size and quality of the shielding gas atmosphere arise. In the first step, the influence of process parameters on the geometric dimensions of single weld beads is analyzed based on design of experiments. In the second step, a 3D build-up strategy for cylindrical specimen with high dimensional accuracy is described. Process parameters, travel paths, and cooling periods between layers are adjusted. Tensile tests show that mechanical properties in the as-deposited condition are close to wrought material. As practical example, the fir-tree root profile of a turbine blade is manufactured. The feasibility of LMD as additive technology is evaluated based on this component.
PublicationBuild-up strategies for temperature control using laser metal deposition for additive manufacturing( 2018)
;Petrat, Torsten ;Winterkorn, René ;Graf, Benjamin ;The track geometry created with laser metal deposition (LMD) is influenced by various parameters. In this case, the laser power has an influence on the width of the track because of an increasing energy input. A larger melt pool is caused by a rising temperature. In the case of a longer welding process, there is also a rise in temperature, resulting in a change of the track geometry. This paper deals with the temperature profiles of different zigzag strategies and spiral strategies for additive manufacturing. A two-color pyrometer is used for temperature measurement on the component surface near the melt pool. Thermocouples measure the temperatures in deeper regions of a component. The welds are located in the center and in the edge area on a test part to investigate the temperature evolution under different boundary conditions. The experiments are carried out on substrates made from mild steel 1.0038 and with the filler material 316L. The investigations show an influence on the temperature evolution by the travel path strategy as well as the position on the part. This shows the necessity for the development and selection of build-up strategies for different part geometries in additive manufacturing by LMD.
PublicationStrategien zur Erreichung eines konstanten Volumenaufbaus bei der additiven Fertigung mittels Laser-Pulver-AuftragschweißenDer Einsatz von Hochleistungswerkstoffen verlangt nach einer hohen Endformnähe der zu fertigenden Bauteile, um den Aufwand und somit die Kosten für Materialeinsatz und Nachbearbeitung möglichst gering zu halten. Der additive Einsatz in Form des Laser-Pulver-Auftragschweißens bietet hierfür durch den gezielten Materialauftrag ein hohes Potential. Herausforderungen bestehen in Bereichen der Vorhersagbarkeit und der Reproduzierbarkeit des Materialauftrages, sowie der Fertigungszeit. Unterschiedliche Einflüsse bei der Schichterzeugung führen dabei zu Abweichungen von der Soll-Geometrie. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen behandeln den Einfluss von Spurgeometrie, Spurüberlappung, Verfahrweg und Aufbaureihenfolge auf die entstehende Bauteilform. Die Teilung einer Lage in Rand- und Kernbereich ermöglicht einen konturangepassten Verfahrweg und eine Erhöhung der Endformnähe innerhalb einer Ebene. Die Verwendung unterschiedlicher Spurgrößen bei der Bauteilerzeugung verdeutlicht die Möglichkeiten einer hohen Auftragsrate bei gleichzeitig hoher Formgenauigkeit. Bereits kleine Unterschiede beim Materialauftrag zwischen Kern- und Randbereichen, Start- und Endpunkten sowie in Bereichen des Richtungswechsels führen aufgrund von Fehlerfortpflanzung nach mehreren Lagen zu Abweichungen in der Aufbaurichtung. Kompensierungen mittels angepasster Baustrategien werden aufgezeigt und diskutiert. Die Nickelbasislegierung Inconel 718, die Titanlegierung Ti-6Al-4V sowie der austenitische Stahl 316L sind Bestandteil der vorliegenden Untersuchungen. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse verdeutlichen das Potenzial einer angepassten Aufbaustrategie zur reproduzierbaren Erzeugung von Bauteilen am Beispiel unterschiedlicher Körpergeometrien.
PublicationLaser metal deposition as repair technology for a gas turbine burner made of Inconel 718Maintenance, repair and overhaul of components are of increasing interest for parts of high complexity and expensive manufacturing costs. In this paper a production process for laser metal deposition is presented, and used to repair a gas turbine burner of Inconel 718. Different parameters for defined track geometries were determined to attain a near net shape deposition with consistent build-up rate for changing wall thicknesses over the manufacturing process. Spot diameter, powder feed rate, welding velocity and laser power were changed as main parameters for a different track size. An optimal overlap rate for a constant layer height was used to calculate the best track size for a fitting layer width similar to the part dimension. Deviations in width and height over the whole build-up process were detected and customized build-up strategies for the 3D sequences were designed. The results show the possibility of a near net shape repair by using different track geometries with laser metal deposition.
PublicationCombined laser additive manufacturing with powderbed and powder nozzle for turbine parts( 2016)
;Graf, Benjamin ;Schuch, Michael ;Petrat, Torsten ;Metal additive manufacturing is often based on laser beam processes like Laser Metal Fusion (LMF) or Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). The LMF process is in particular suitable for very complex geometries. However build rate, part volume and material flexibility are limited in LMF. In contrast, LMD achieves higher deposition rates, less restricted part sizes and the possibility to change the material composition during the build-up process. On the other hand, due to the lower spatial precision of the material deposition process, the complexity of geometries is limited. Therefore, combined manufacturing with both LMF and LMD has the potential to utilize the respective advantages of both technologies. In this paper, combined additive manufacturing with LMF and LMD is described for Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. First, lattice structures with different wall thickness and void sizes are built with LMF. The influence of LMD material deposition on these LMF-structures is examined regarding metallurgical impact and distortion. Cross-sections, x-ray computer tomography and 3D-scanning results are shown. For the titanium alloy specimen, oxygen and Nitrogen content in the deposited material are analysed to evaluate the LMD shielding gas atmosphere. The results are used to develop guidelines for a LMD build-up strategy on LMF substrates. With these findings, a gas turbine burner is manufactured as reality test for the combined approach.