Now showing 1 - 10 of 26
  • Publication
    Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Multilayer Laser Powder-Based Directed Energy Deposition
    ( 2022)
    Ávila Calderón, Luis Alexander
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    Graf, Benjamin
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    Rehmer, Birgit
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    Petrat, Torsten
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    Skrotzki, Birgit
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    Laser powder-based directed energy deposition (DED-L) is increasingly being used in additive manufacturing (AM). As AM technology, DED-L must consider specific challenges. It must achieve uniform volume growth over hundreds of layers and avoid heat buildup of the deposited material. Herein, Ti-6Al-4V is fabricated using an approach that addresses these challenges and is relevant in terms of transferability to DED-L applications in AM. The assessment of the obtained properties and the discussion of their relationship to the process conditions and resulting microstructure are presented. The quality of the manufacturing process is proven in terms of the reproducibility of properties between individual blanks and with respect to the building height. The characterization demonstrates that excellent mechanical properties are achieved at room temperature and at 400 C.
  • Publication
    Microstructure of Inconel 718 parts with constant mass energy input manufactured with direct energy deposition
    ( 2019)
    Petrat, Torsten
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    ;
    Graf, Benjamin
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    The laser-based direct energy deposition (DED) as a technology for additive manufacturing allows the production of near net shape components. Industrial applications require a stable process to ensure reproducible quality. Instabilities in the manufacturing process can lead to faulty components which do not meet the required properties. The DED process is adjusted by various parameters such as laser power, velocity, powder mass flow and spot diameter, which interact with each other. A frequently used comparative parameter in welding is the energy per unit length and is calculated from the laser power and the velocity in laser welding. The powder per unit length comparative parameter in the DED process has also be considered, because this filler material absorbs energy in addition to the base material. This paper deals with the influence of mass energy as a comparative parameter for determining the properties of additively manufactured parts. The same energy per unit length of 60 J/mm as well as the same powder per unit length of 7.2 mg/mm can be adjusted with different parameter sets. The energy per unit length and the powder per unit length determine the mass energy. The laser power is varied within the experiments between 400 W and 900 W. Energy per unit length and powder per unit length are kept constant by adjusting velocity and powder mass flow. Using the example of Inconel 718, experiments are carried out with the determined parameter sets. In a first step, individual tracks are produced and analyzed by means of micro section. The geometry of the tracks shows differences in height and width. In addition, the increasing laser power leads to a higher dilution of the base material. To determine the suitability of the parameters for additive manufacturing use, the individual tracks are used to build up parts with a square base area of 20×20 mm². An investigation by Archimedean principle shows a higher porosity with lower laser power. By further analysis of the micro sections, at low laser power, connection errors occur between the tracks. The results show that laser power, velocity and powder mass flow must be considered in particular, because a constant mass energy can lead to different geometric as well as microscopic properties.
  • Publication
    Heat treatment of SLM-LMD hybrid components
    ( 2019) ;
    Düchting, Jan
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    Petrat, Torsten
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    Graf, Benjamin
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    Additive manufacturing is no longer just used for the production of prototypes but already found its way into the industrial production. However, the fabrication of massive metallic parts with high geometrical complexity is still too time-consuming to be economically viable. The combination of the powder bed-based selective laser melting process (SLM), known for its geometrical freedom and accuracy, and the nozzle-based laser metal deposition process (LMD), known for its high build-up rates, has great potential to reduce the process duration. For the industrial application of the SLM-LMD hybrid process chain it is necessary to investigate the interaction of the processes and its effect on the material properties to guarantee part quality and prevent component failure. Therefore, hybrid components are manufactured and examined before and after the heat treatment regarding the microstructure and the hardness in the SLM-LMD transition zone. The experiments are conducted using the nickel-based alloy Inconel 718.
  • Publication
    Highspeed-plasma-laser-cladding of thin wear resistance coatings: A process approach as a hybrid metal deposition-technology
    ( 2019) ;
    Petrat, Torsten
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    Graf, Benjamin
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    Plasma-Transferred-Arc (PTA) welding is a process that enables high deposition rates, but also causes increased thermal load on the component. Laser metal deposition (LMD) welding, on the other hand, reaches a high level of precision and thus achieves comparatively low deposition rates, which can lead to high processing costs. Combining laser and arc energy aims to exploit the respective advantages of both technologies. In this study, a novel approach of this process combination is presented using a PTA system and a 2 kW disk laser. The energy sources are combined in a common process zone as a high-speed plasma laser cladding technology (HPLC), which achieves process speeds of 10 m/min at deposition rates of 6.6 kg/h and an energy per unit length of 39 J/mm.
  • Publication
    Numerische Simulation einer AM-Prozesskette im DED Auftragschweißen
    Das DED Auftragschweißen ist ein additives Fertigungsverfahren für Metalle, bei dem das Material schichtweise auf ein Substrat aufgetragen wird. Die schnellen Temperaturzyklen rufen Spannungsgradienten im Bauteil hervor. Der schichtweise Aufbau der Bauteile verursacht eine anisotrope Mikrostruktur. Mittels nachgelagerter Wärmebehandlung können diese Effekte verringert werden. Im anschließenden Schritt der Prozesskette wird das additiv hergestellte Bauteil mittels Drahterodieren von dem Substrat abgetrennt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine thermo-mechanische Simulation der gesamten Prozesskette vorgestellt, welche den additiven Aufbau, Wärmebehandlung und das Abtrennen vom Substrat beinhaltet. Anstelle der in der Literatur üblichen schichtweisen Modellierungsstrategie für die DED Simulation wird das gesamte Bauteil in einem Stück vernetzt und der vollständig transiente, schichtweise Materialauftrag über Elementgruppen realisiert. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Simulationen muss der nichtlineare Kontakt zwischen den Schichten nicht berücksichtigt werden, was die Rechenzeiten deutlich verkürzt. Das Modell wurde validiert mittels Abgleiches des Verzugs aus Simulation und Experiment. Die Proben, bestehend aus DIN 1.4404 (AISI 316L), wurden nach jedem Prozessschritt 3D gescannt um den Verzug zu quantifizieren. Zusätzlich wurden Querschnitte und Härtetests nach Vickers von unterschiedlich behandelten Proben durchgeführt, um den Effekt der Wärmebehandlung auf die Mikrostruktur und die Härte des Bauteils zu untersuchen.
  • Publication
    Highspeed-Plasma-Laser-Cladding (HPLC) als hybrides Beschichtungsverfahren: Evaluierung des Einsatzpotentials für hohe Prozessgeschwindigkeiten
    ( 2019) ;
    Schreiber, Frank
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    Graf, Benjamin
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    Das Plasma-Pulver-Auftragschweißen ist ein Verfahren, dass hohe Auftragraten ermöglicht, jedoch auch eine erhöhte thermische Belastung des Bauteiles verursacht. Laser-Pulver- Auftragschweißen hingegen erreicht eine hohe Präzision und eine geringe Aufmischung, erfordert jedoch ein kostspieliges Hochleistungslasersystem und erreicht im Vergleich nur geringe Auftragraten, was zu hohen Verarbeitungskosten führt. Eine Kopplung von Laser- und Lichtbogenenergie in einer gemeinsamen Prozesszone zielt darauf ab, die jeweiligen Vorteile beider Technologien zu nutzen. Dies betrifft insbesondere die Effizienz der Wärmeausnutzung und der Nutzung des Zusatzwerkstoffs. Es wird ein Plasma-Laser-Hybrid-Prozess als Highspeed-Plasma-Laser-Cladding-Technologie (HPLC) für Beschichtungs- sowie Instandsetzungszwecke vorgestellt. Gezeigt werden Ergebnisse mit Prozessgeschwindigkeiten von 10 m/min bei Laserleistungen von 2 kW, dabei können Flächenraten von mehr als 1 m2/h erreicht werden. Effiziente Beschichtungen von großen Flächen, beispielsweise auf rotationssymmetrischen Bauteilen stellen ein relevantes Anwendungsfeld für diesen Technologieansatz dar. Die Nickelbasislegierung Inconel 625 wird als Korrosionsschutzwerkstoff eingesetzt. Im Rahmen der Verfahrensprüfung werden die hergestellten Beschichtungen einer EDX Messung unterzogen. Prozesscharakteristische Kenngrößen wie z.B. die Auftragrate werden vorgestellt und vor dem Hintergrund wirtschaftlicher Kennzahlen diskutiert. Zusätzlich werden die Aufmischung, Spurgeometrie und Wärmeeinflusszone der Spuren und Schichten ausgewertet. Im Vergleich zum Laser-Pulver-Auftragschweißen werden Spuren bei hohen Prozessgeschwindigkeiten mit einer hohen Auftragrate erzeugt.
  • Publication
    In-situ distortions in LMD additive manufacturing walls can be measured with digital image correlation and predicted using numerical simulations
    ( 2018) ;
    Graf, Benjamin
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    Rethmeier, Michael
    Distortions in Additive Manufacturing (AM) Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) occur in the newly-built component due to rapid heating and solidification and can lead to shape deviations and cracking. This paper presents a novel approach to quantify the distortions experimentally and to use the results in numerical simulation validation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is applied together with optical filters to measure in-situ distortions directly on a wall geometry produced with LMD. The wall shows cyclic expansion and shrinking with the edges bending inward and the top of the sample exhibiting a slight u-shape as residual distortions. Subsequently, a structural Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the experiment is established, calibrated against experimental temperature profiles and used to predict the in-situ distortions of the sample. A comparison of the experimental and numerical results reveals a good agreement in length direction of the sample and quantitative deviations in height direction, which are attributed to the material model used. The suitability of the novel experimental approach for measurements on an AM sample is shown and the potential for the validated numerical model as a predictive tool to reduce trial-and-error and improve part quality is evaluated.
  • Publication
    Porosity of LMD manufactured parts analyzed by Archmimedes method and CT
    ( 2018)
    Marko, Angelina
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    Raute, Julius
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    Linaschke, Dorit
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    Graf, Benjamin
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    Pores in additive manufactured metal parts occur due to different reasons and affect the part quality negatively. Few investigations on the origins of porosity are available, especially for Ni-based super alloys. This paper presents a new study to examine the influence of common processing parameters on the formation of pores in parts built by laser metal deposition using Inconel 718 powder. Further, a comparison between the computed tomography (CT) and the Archimedes method was made. The investigation shows that CT is able to identify different kinds of pores and to give further information about their distribution. The identification of some pores as well as their shape can be dependent on the parameter setting of the analysis tool. Due to limited measurement resolution, CT is not able to identify correctly pores with diameters smaller than 0.1 mm, which leads to a false decrease in overall porosity. The applied Archimedes method is unable to differentiate between gas porosity and other kinds of holes like internal cracks or lack of fusion, but it delivered a proper value for overall porosity. The method was able to provide suitable data for the statistical evaluation with design of experiments, which revealed significant parameters on the formation of pores in LMD.
  • Publication
    Build-up strategies for laser metal deposition in additive manufacturing
    ( 2018)
    Petrat, Torsten
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    Graf, Benjamin
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    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) as a technology for additive manufacturing allows the production of large components outside of closed working chambers. Industrial applications require a stable process as well as a constant deposition of the filler material in order to ensure uniform volume growth and reproducible mechanical properties. This paper deals with the influence of travel path strategies on temperature profile and material deposition. Meandering and spiral hatching strategies are used in the center as well as in the edge of a specimen. The temperature is measured with thermocouples attatched to the backside of the specimen. The tests are carried out on the materials S235JR and 316L. The results show a strong dependence of the maximum temperatures on the travel path strategy and the welding position on the component.