Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationTransferability of ANN-generated parameter sets from welding tracks to 3D-geometries in Directed Energy Deposition( 2022-11-04)
;Marko, Angelina ;Bähring, Stefan ;Raute, Maximilian Julius ;Directed energy deposition (DED) has been in industrial use as a coating process for many years. Modern applications include the repair of existing components and additive manufacturing. The main advantages of DED are high deposition rates and low energy input. However, the process is influenced by a variety of parameters affecting the component quality. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) offer the possibility of mapping complex processes such as DED. They can serve as a tool for predicting optimal process parameters and quality characteristics. Previous research only refers to weld beads: a transferability to additively manufactured three-dimensional components has not been investigated. In the context of this work, an ANN is generated based on 86 weld beads. Quality categories (poor, medium, and good) are chosen as target variables to combine several quality features. The applicability of this categorization compared to conventional characteristics is discussed in detail. The ANN predicts the quality category of weld beads with an average accuracy of 81.5%. Two randomly generated parameter sets predicted as “good” by the network are then used to build tracks, coatings, walls, and cubes. It is shown that ANN trained with weld beads are suitable for complex parameter predictions in a limited way.
PublicationA study of the magnetohydrodynamic effect on keyhole dynamics and defect mitigation in laser beam welding( 2022)
;Meng, X. ;Bachmann, M. ;Artinov, A.In this paper, the highly transient keyhole dynamics, e.g., laser absorption, keyhole geometry, and fluctuation, etc., under a magnetic field are investigated using an experimental approach and multi-physical modeling. The model provides accurate predictions to the variation of penetration depth and weld pool profiles caused by the MHD effect, which is validated by the measurements of optical micrographs and in-situ metal/glass observation. The micro-X-ray computed tomography shows a remarkable reduction of keyhole-induced porosity with the magnetic field. The correlation between the porosity mitigation and the weld pool dynamics influenced by the magnetic field is built comprehensively. It is found that the magnetic field gives a direct impact on the laser energy absorption at the keyhole front wall by changing the protrusion movement. The porosity mitigation comes from multiple physical aspects, including keyhole stabilization, widening of the bubble floating channel, and the electromagnetic expulsive force. Their contributions vary according to the bubble size. The findings provide a deeper insight into the relationship between electromagnetic parameters, keyhole dynamics, and suppression of keyhole-relevant defects.
PublicationMicro-texture dependent temperature distribution of CVD diamond thick film cutting tools during turning of Ti-6Al-4V( 2022)
; ;Schröter, D.Machining titanium alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V results in a high thermomechanical load on cutting tools and consequently short tool lifes. With respect to a necessary reduction of the resulting cutting tool temperatures, ultrashort pulse (USP) laser fabricated micro-textured rake faces offer direct supply of cooling lubricant into the cutting zone and lead to a reduced heat induction. As a result, micro-textured CVD diamond thick film cutting tools are also capable of machining high-performance materials due to reduced contact temperatures. In the scope of the research, the resulting temperature distribution for micro-textured rake faces will be compared under both dry and wet process conditions. Measurements show a reduction of the resulting cutting tool temperatures of Δϑt = 27.9 % using micro-textured cutting tools compared to non-textured cutting tools. A validated simulation provides valuable information about the contact temperatures enabling a specific development of the micro-texture geometry. As a result, a reduction of the contact temperature between chip and rake face by ΔϑT = 24.7 % was possible.
PublicationGear Wheel Finishing with Abrasive Brushing Tools to Improve the Surface Quality of Tooth Flanks for the Industrial Application( 2022)
;Gülzow, BernhardA high surface quality of tooth flanks can improve the service life and the performance of gears, as well as reduce acoustic emissions. However, high demands on the gear geometry pose a challenge for the finishing of tooth flank surfaces because the dimensional accuracy that can be achieved with modern grinding processes must not be impaired by the finishing process. A preceding study has shown fundamentally that profiled abrasive brushing tools can be used to improve the quality of individual tooth flank surfaces. Due to the integration into the grinding machine, it represents a promising alternative to common finishing applications. Before the process can be used in an industrial environment, process reliability and tool life must be examined. For this purpose, complete reference gearwheels (39 × 10) were finished with the brushing tools. It could be shown that the surface roughness can be reliably reduced by ΔRa ≈ 0.2 µm by using a single brush for an entire gearwheel without changing the gear geometry. In addition to the influence of the tool specifications on the work result, the influence of the initial roughness after grinding was considered in particular. It was found that the achievable surface roughness depends significantly on the depth of the grinding grooves, as these are retained as desired, while the roughness peaks are fully smoothed. Furthermore, a device for the machine-integrated profiling and dressing of brushing tools was successfully designed, implemented, and tested.
PublicationRevealing dynamic processes in laser powder bed fusion with in situ X-ray diffraction at PETRA III( 2022)
;Krohmer, E. ;Schmeiser, F. ;Wahlmann, B. ;Rosigkeit, J. ;Graf, G. ;Spoerk-Erdely, P. ;Clemens, H. ;Staron, P. ;Körner, C. ;Reimers, W.The high flux combined with the high energy of the monochromatic synchrotron radiation available at modern synchrotron facilities offers vast possibilities for fundamental research on metal processing technologies. Especially in the case of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF), an additive manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of complex-shaped metallic parts, in situ methods are necessary to understand the highly dynamic thermal, mechanical, and metallurgical processes involved in the creation of the parts. At PETRA III, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, a customized LPBF system featuring all essential functions of an industrial LPBF system, is used for in situ X-ray diffraction research. Three use cases with different experimental setups and research questions are presented to demonstrate research opportunities. First, the influence of substrate pre-heating and a complex scan pattern on the strain and internal stress progression during the manufacturing of Inconel 625 parts is investigated. Second, a study on the nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 reveals the formation and dissolution of γ′ precipitates depending on the scan pattern in different part locations. Third, phase transitions during melting and solidification of an intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloy are examined, and the advantages of using thin platelet-shaped specimens to resolve the phase components are discussed. The presented cases give an overview of in situ X-ray diffraction experiments at PETRA III for research on the LPBF technology and provide information on specific experimental procedures.
PublicationPerformance analysis of an adaptive cooling system with primary and secondary heat paths for linear direct drives in machine tools( 2022)
;Salein, S.Machine tools subjected to high demands regarding productivity and accuracy are faced with the challenge that thermal losses influencing the accuracy negatively. Due to high requirements regarding thermal stability of precision related machine tool components, the focused linear direct drives (LDD) must be tempered by active cooling systems. In machine tools, a sufficient cooling capacity is available, but the cooling is insufficiently adjusted to the process and the individual demand of the heat-inducing as well as precision related components. With the intention to achieve a demand-oriented cooling, the use of thermoelectricity in machine tools is one research objective at the Institute for Machine Tools and Factory Management (IWF). Inspired by the concept of thermoelectric self-cooling (TSC)-systems for electronic devices, an Adaptive Cooling (AC)-system with thermoelectric generators (TEG) for LDD in machine tools is developed and experimentally investigated. In order to enhance the performance of AC-systems, in this research a reduction of the global thermal resistance is focused. A promising approach to achieve this goal is the division of the induced heat flow into a primary and a secondary heat path. For a model-based performance analysis of this approach, a system simulation is presented. To acquire experimental data for model validation, a test bench of the AC-system with primary as well as primary and secondary heat path is put into operation. The comparison of simulative and experimental determined data indicates a predominantly high model prediction accuracy. As a result, the implementation of a secondary heat path enables a reduction of the temperature on the upper surface of the heat source by 24.6% and thus a decrease of the global thermal resistance by 38.1%. Compared to the initial state of the AC-system only with primary heat path, the achieved thermal stability in the precision related machine tool component as well as the self-starting capability is improved.