Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationTransferability of ANN-generated parameter sets from welding tracks to 3D-geometries in Directed Energy Deposition( 2022-11-04)
;Marko, Angelina ;Bähring, Stefan ;Raute, Maximilian Julius ;Directed energy deposition (DED) has been in industrial use as a coating process for many years. Modern applications include the repair of existing components and additive manufacturing. The main advantages of DED are high deposition rates and low energy input. However, the process is influenced by a variety of parameters affecting the component quality. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) offer the possibility of mapping complex processes such as DED. They can serve as a tool for predicting optimal process parameters and quality characteristics. Previous research only refers to weld beads: a transferability to additively manufactured three-dimensional components has not been investigated. In the context of this work, an ANN is generated based on 86 weld beads. Quality categories (poor, medium, and good) are chosen as target variables to combine several quality features. The applicability of this categorization compared to conventional characteristics is discussed in detail. The ANN predicts the quality category of weld beads with an average accuracy of 81.5%. Two randomly generated parameter sets predicted as “good” by the network are then used to build tracks, coatings, walls, and cubes. It is shown that ANN trained with weld beads are suitable for complex parameter predictions in a limited way.
PublicationCharacterization of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Multilayer Laser Powder-Based Directed Energy Deposition( 2022)
;Ávila Calderón, Luis Alexander ;Graf, Benjamin ;Rehmer, Birgit ;Petrat, Torsten ;Skrotzki, BirgitLaser powder-based directed energy deposition (DED-L) is increasingly being used in additive manufacturing (AM). As AM technology, DED-L must consider specific challenges. It must achieve uniform volume growth over hundreds of layers and avoid heat buildup of the deposited material. Herein, Ti-6Al-4V is fabricated using an approach that addresses these challenges and is relevant in terms of transferability to DED-L applications in AM. The assessment of the obtained properties and the discussion of their relationship to the process conditions and resulting microstructure are presented. The quality of the manufacturing process is proven in terms of the reproducibility of properties between individual blanks and with respect to the building height. The characterization demonstrates that excellent mechanical properties are achieved at room temperature and at 400 C.
PublicationLaser beam welding of additive manufactured components: Applicability of existing valuation regulations( 2022)
;Jokisch, T. ; ;Marko, Angelina ;Üstündağ, Ömer ;Gumenyuk, A.With additive manufacturing in the powder bed, the component size is limited by the installation space. Joint welding of additively manufactured parts offers a possibility to remove this size limitation. However, due to the specific stress and microstructure state in the additively built material, it is unclear to what ex-tent existing evaluation rules of joint welding are also suitable for welds on additive components. This is in-vestigated using laser beam welding of additively manufactured pipe joints. The welds are evaluated by means of visual inspection, metallographic examina-tions as well as computed tomography. The types of defects found are comparable to conventional com-ponents. This is an indicator that existing evaluation regulations also map the possible defects occurring for weld seams on additive components.
PublicationMicrostructure of Inconel 718 parts with constant mass energy input manufactured with direct energy deposition( 2019)
;Petrat, Torsten ; ;Graf, BenjaminThe laser-based direct energy deposition (DED) as a technology for additive manufacturing allows the production of near net shape components. Industrial applications require a stable process to ensure reproducible quality. Instabilities in the manufacturing process can lead to faulty components which do not meet the required properties. The DED process is adjusted by various parameters such as laser power, velocity, powder mass flow and spot diameter, which interact with each other. A frequently used comparative parameter in welding is the energy per unit length and is calculated from the laser power and the velocity in laser welding. The powder per unit length comparative parameter in the DED process has also be considered, because this filler material absorbs energy in addition to the base material. This paper deals with the influence of mass energy as a comparative parameter for determining the properties of additively manufactured parts. The same energy per unit length of 60 J/mm as well as the same powder per unit length of 7.2 mg/mm can be adjusted with different parameter sets. The energy per unit length and the powder per unit length determine the mass energy. The laser power is varied within the experiments between 400 W and 900 W. Energy per unit length and powder per unit length are kept constant by adjusting velocity and powder mass flow. Using the example of Inconel 718, experiments are carried out with the determined parameter sets. In a first step, individual tracks are produced and analyzed by means of micro section. The geometry of the tracks shows differences in height and width. In addition, the increasing laser power leads to a higher dilution of the base material. To determine the suitability of the parameters for additive manufacturing use, the individual tracks are used to build up parts with a square base area of 20×20 mm². An investigation by Archimedean principle shows a higher porosity with lower laser power. By further analysis of the micro sections, at low laser power, connection errors occur between the tracks. The results show that laser power, velocity and powder mass flow must be considered in particular, because a constant mass energy can lead to different geometric as well as microscopic properties.
PublicationLaser Welding of SLM-Manufactured Tubes Made of IN625 and IN718( 2019)
;Jokisch, Torsten ;Marko, Angelina ; ;Üstündag, Ömer ;The advantage of selective laser melting (SLM) is its high accuracy and geometrical flexibility. Because the maximum size of the components is limited by the process chamber, possibilities must be found to combine several parts manufactured by SLM. An application where this is necessary, is, for example, the components of gas turbines, such as burners or oil return pipes, and inserts, which can be joined by circumferential welds. However, only a few investigations to date have been carried out for the welding of components produced by SLM. The object of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the feasibility of laser beam welding for joining SLM tube connections made of nickel-based alloys. For this purpose, SLM-manufactured Inconel 625 and Inconel 718 tubes were welded with a Yb:YAG disk laser and subsequently examined for residual stresses and defects. The results showed that the welds had no significant influence on the residual stresses. A good weld quality could be achieved in the seam circumference. However, pores and pore nests were found in the final overlap area, which meant that no continuous good welding quality could be accomplished. Pore formation was presumably caused by capillary instabilities when the laser power was ramped out.
PublicationPorosity of LMD manufactured parts analyzed by Archmimedes method and CT( 2018)
;Marko, Angelina ;Raute, Julius ;Linaschke, Dorit ;Graf, BenjaminPores in additive manufactured metal parts occur due to different reasons and affect the part quality negatively. Few investigations on the origins of porosity are available, especially for Ni-based super alloys. This paper presents a new study to examine the influence of common processing parameters on the formation of pores in parts built by laser metal deposition using Inconel 718 powder. Further, a comparison between the computed tomography (CT) and the Archimedes method was made. The investigation shows that CT is able to identify different kinds of pores and to give further information about their distribution. The identification of some pores as well as their shape can be dependent on the parameter setting of the analysis tool. Due to limited measurement resolution, CT is not able to identify correctly pores with diameters smaller than 0.1 mm, which leads to a false decrease in overall porosity. The applied Archimedes method is unable to differentiate between gas porosity and other kinds of holes like internal cracks or lack of fusion, but it delivered a proper value for overall porosity. The method was able to provide suitable data for the statistical evaluation with design of experiments, which revealed significant parameters on the formation of pores in LMD.
Publication3D laser metal deposition: Process steps for additive manufacturing( 2018)
;Graf, Benjamin ;Marko, Angelina ;Petrat, Torsten ;Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an established technology for two-dimensional surface coatings. It offers high deposition rates, high material flexibility, and the possibility to deposit material on existing components. Due to these features, LMD has been increasingly applied for additive manufacturing of 3D structures in recent years. Compared to previous coating applications, additive manufacturing of 3D structures leads to new challenges regarding LMD process knowledge. In this paper, the process steps for LMD as additive manufacturing technology are described. The experiments are conducted using titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718. Only the LMD nozzle is used to create a shielding gas atmosphere. This ensures the high geometric flexibility needed for additive manufacturing, although issues with the restricted size and quality of the shielding gas atmosphere arise. In the first step, the influence of process parameters on the geometric dimensions of single weld beads is analyzed based on design of experiments. In the second step, a 3D build-up strategy for cylindrical specimen with high dimensional accuracy is described. Process parameters, travel paths, and cooling periods between layers are adjusted. Tensile tests show that mechanical properties in the as-deposited condition are close to wrought material. As practical example, the fir-tree root profile of a turbine blade is manufactured. The feasibility of LMD as additive technology is evaluated based on this component.
PublicationManufacturing of carbide tools by Selective Laser Melting( 2018)
; ;Bergmann, AndréApplication fields of electrical discharge machining (EDM) are limited due to given process conditions. When producing structures of high aspect ratios or using multi-axis machining, removed particles assemble at the machining zone, leading to process instabilities and increasing tool wear. A promising approach to improve EDM process conditions is the utilization of flushing channels in the tool electrode. However, with increasing complexity of the electrode geometry and the local integration of the mentioned flushing channels, conventional electrode manufacturing reaches its limitations. By applying Selective Laser Melting (SLM), these limitations are eliminated. An additional benefit is the efficient use of material during SLM, where nearly no waste is produced, because remaining powder can be used for the next SLM-process. The appropriate integration of flushing channels, even for complicated electrode geometries, improves process conditions during EDM in a variety of applications, leading to a higher material removal rate VW and reduced tool wear TH compared to machining without flushing. Additionally, the number of required tool electrodes can be reduced, as SLM enables an efficient integration and miniaturization of all features in a single electrode, what results in a far more sustainable process chain. Of particular interest in the field of EDM is carbide. Because of its wear resistance and stability, it is an ideal electrode material, which is commonly applied in µEDM. Tungsten carbide-cobalt is representative for this group of materials, which is already used in tool manufacturing. Several tests show a general suitability of carbide tool electrodes made by SLM for EDM-processing. However, the SLM process parameters and the composition of the carbide-cobalt show significant impact to the EDM results. A lower proportion of cobalt leads to reduced material removal rates, whereas the level of tool wear remains at a similar level. In order to benefit from the advantages of additive manufactured carbide tool electrodes, this investigation aims at decreasing waste of material and the number of required tool electrodes.
PublicationFinite element analysis of in-situ distortion and bulging for an arbitrarily curved additive manufacturing directed energy deposition geometry( 2018)
; ;Marko, Angelina ;Graf, BenjaminWith the recent rise in the demand for additive manufacturing (AM), the need for reliable simulation tools to support experimental efforts grows steadily. Computational welding mechanics approaches can simulate the AM processes but are generally not validated for AM-specific effects originating from multiple heating and cooling cycles. To increase confidence in the outcomes and to use numerical simulation reliably, the result quality needs to be validated against experiments for in-situ and post process cases. In this article, a validation is demonstrated for a structural thermomechanical simulation model on an arbitrarily curved Directed Energy Deposition (DED) part: at first, the validity of the heat input is ensured and subsequently, the model's predictive quality for in-situ deformation and the bulging behaviour is investigated. For the in-situ deformations, 3D-Digital Image Correlation measurements are conducted that quantify periodic expansion and shrinkage as they occur. The results show a strong dependency of the local stiffness of the surrounding geometry. The numerical simulation model is set up in accordance with the experiment and can reproduce the measured 3 dimensional in-situ displacements. Furthermore, the deformations due to removal from the substrate are quantified via 3D scanning, exhibiting considerable distortions due to stress relaxation. Finally, the prediction of the deformed shape is discussed in regards to bulging simulation: to improve the accuracy of the calculated final shape, a novel extension of the model relying on the modified stiffness of inactive upper layers is proposed and the experimentally observed bulging could be reproduced in the finite element model.
PublicationApplication of additive manufactured tungsten carbide tool electrodes in EDM( 2018)
; ;Bergmann, André ;Gridin, WitalijApplication fields of electrical discharge machining (EDM) are limited due to given process conditions. When producing structures of high aspect ratios or using multi-axis machining, removed particles assemble at the machining zone, leading to process instabilities. A promising approach to improve EDM process conditions is the utilization of flushing channels in the tool electrode. However, with increasing complexity of the electrode geometry and the local integration of the mentioned flushing channels, conventional electrode manufacturing reaches its limitations. By applying Selective Laser Melting (SLM), these limitations are eliminated. The appropriate integration of flushing channels, even for complicated electrode geometries, improves process conditions during EDM in a variety of applications, leading to a higher material removal rate VW and reduced tool wear TH compared to machining without flushing. Additionally, the number of required tool electrodes can be reduced, as SLM enables an efficient integration and miniaturization of all features in a single electrode. Of particular interest in the field of EDM is carbide. Because of its wear resistance and stability, it is an ideal electrode material, which is commonly applied in mEDM. Tungsten carbide-cobalt is representative for this group of materials, which is already used in tool manufacturing. Several tests show a general suitability of carbide tool electrodes made by SLM for EDM-processing. However, the SLM process parameters and the composition of the carbide-cobalt show significant impact to the EDM results. A lower proportion of cobalt leads to reduced material removal rates VW and rising tool wear.