Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationSimulating flow behaviour of wet particles within the immersed tumbling process( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Kuche, Y.Landua, F.For many production chains, it is mandatory to involve special finishing of the manufactured parts for the chipping of the edges as well as the polishing of surfaces. One commonly used method is the immersed tumbling process, where any workpiece is dragged through a particle filled container. In many cases, the immersed tumbling process operates in environments with added liquids, leading to changes in particle-tool interaction and general flow behaviour of the used particles. Whilst the discrete element method for simulating particles is mainly limited to dry particles, the used software ROCKY DEM from ESSS, FlorianÃ³polis, Brasil, comes with a built-in liquid-bridge model to simulate water-covered particles and granulate and furthermore an extension for system couplings with Ansys Fluent of the company ANSYS, INC., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The latter can be used to create from both software one three-phase-model with higher amounts of actually simulated water. In thi s study, small amounts of water were added to differently shaped particles using the build-in liquid-bridge model, to analyse and compare the particles flow characteristics in both, wet and dry environments. To gather significant information leading towards precise comparisons, the particles trajectories, velocities and resulting forces against the workpieces can be specifically observed and analysed, whilst this kind of process knowledge could previously never been taken into account without simulation.
PublicationConcept for an actuated variable tool electrode for use in sinking EDM( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Streckenbach, J. ;Thißen, K. ;Schulte Westhoff, B. ;Masoud, A.Maas, J.Typically, a large number of individual tool electrodes has to be used in sinking electrical discharge machining (sinking EDM) to successfully machine a single workpiece. Due to non-uniform wear and insufficient flushing of the working gap electrode geometries have a significant effect on the process efficiency. This paper discusses the use of an actuated variable tool electrode for sinking EDM to reduce the number of required tool electrodes and to increase the overall process efficiency. A miniaturised linear actuator was developed to individually move electrode segments to form the target shape for the tool electrode. The coordinated actuation of bundled electrode segments introduces new methods for the active flushing within the working gap, which cannot be implemented in conventional sinking EDM. Intelligent sinking strategies can further improve process efficiency by creating and sinking sub-geometries into the workpiece offering improved flushing conditions compa red to the original geometry.
PublicationApplication of tool electrodes oxidised with humid and dry air during the electro-discharge drilling of MAR-M247 alloy( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Streckenbach, J. ;Camin, B. ;Chocholaty, O.Dinh, N.C.The requirements and challenges of machining advanced materials in the field of aerospace, automotive and tool industry are increasing constantly. Due to their mechanical properties, cutting of high-strength materials such as superalloys is severely limited. Electro-discharge drilling can be used for the manufacturing of holes in hard to machine materials. Although electrical discharge machining (EDM) is successfully applied to the machining of holes in turbine blades, a lack of performance and challenges concerning the geometrical accuracy still remain. By applying inner flushing, the resulting electrically conductive debris is flushed through the lateral working gap, increasing the probability of arcs and short circuits. The resulting increased tool wear, conicity of the hole, limited hole depth and process instabilities are still challenging in electro-discharge drilling. In order to decrease the effects of the arcs and short circuits, a surface modification is appli ed to increase the electrical resistance of the lateral surface of the tool electrode. As a result, the mentioned impairments occur less frequently due to decreased occurrence of arcs and short circuits in the lateral working gap. For the present investigation copper tool electrodes were thermally oxidised in dry and humid air with different durations and used afterwards for electro-discharge drilling of MAR-M247. The tests were carried out on the machine tool AGIETRON Compact 1 from the company GF AgieCharmilles, Losone, Switzerland. Holes with a depth of t = 11 mm were drilled using various surface-modified tool electrodes with a diameter of d = 2 mm. Oxidation with dry air and a extended oxidation time resulted in a 18 % lower erosion duration, accompanied by an increase of the linear wear of the tool electrode Île below 10 %.
PublicationPhotocatalytic effect of TiO2-coated surfaces on the pathogenic microorganisms E.coli and S.aureus( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Hein, C.Brehmer, A.The use of titanium dioxide as a strong photocatalytic substance can have a large effect in combating the spread of pathogens through heavily contaminated surfaces. For this purpose, various materials, such as metal, glass, and polymer were coated with rutile- and anatase-rich titanium dioxide by sol-gel method. The contact angle and photocatalytic activity of the coated surface were measured under UV irradiation. The anatase-rich titanium dioxide showed higher photocatalytic activity, which further increased with the coating thickness. The process temperature had an effect on the photocatalytic activity due to the temperature-dependent conversion of anatase to rutile crystal conformation. The coated surfaces had strongly reduced contact angles compared to the uncoated material. In particular, the anatase-rich surfaces resulted in superhydrophilic properties. Photocatalytically induced antibacterial activity against pathogenic microorganisms in liquid environments was d emonstrated, especially for gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria.
PublicationCutting edge preparation of monolithic ceramic milling tools( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Polte, J.Hocke, T.Due to international competition, continuous increases in productivity, product quality and reduction of production costs are required. Especially, the development of milling tools made of innovative cutting materials and application-specific tool geometries for the machining of brittle materials are in focus to overcome these challenges. One approach to improve the performance and the tool behaviour concerning milling of graphite is the use of monolithic ceramic milling tools. Unfortunately, the high brittleness of the ceramic leads to breakouts on the cutting edge during the grinding process. This results in an increased maximum chipping of the cutting edge, which has a significant influence on the milling process. To improve the breakout behaviour, a cutting edge preparation with the immersed tumbling process was applied. To enable a process reliable cutting edge preparation, a suitable lapping medium, the influence of the processing time as well as the depth of imme rsion were investigated. Besides the maximum chipping of the cutting edge, the rounded cutting edge radius was also analysed. The results show that a process reliable cutting edge preparation of monolithic ceramic milling tools with a maximum chipping of the cutting edge RS,max â¤ 3 Âµm and a rounded cutting edge radius of rÎ² â¤ 7 Âµm could be realised. In future investigations, the experimental applicability of monolithic ceramic milling tools will be proved.
PublicationAdditive manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts( 2021)
;Polte, J. ;Polte, M. ;Lahoda, C. ;Hocke, T.Uhlmann, E.Cemented carbide parts are commonly used as wear resistance components in a broad range of industry, e.g. for forming, mould making and matrices. At state of the art the machining of precision cemented carbide components by milling is strongly limited due to excessive tool wear and long machining times. Promising approaches for precision machining of cemented carbide components are dedicated cutting tool coatings, new cutting materials like binderless polycrystalline diamond and ultrasonic-assisted machining. Nevertheless, for all these approaches the components need to be machined of monolithic materials. The new approach addresses an innovative manufacturing process chain composed of near net shape Additive Manufacturing followed by a precision finishing process. Within this investigations for the manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts, cemented carbide with a cobalt content of 17 % and a grain size in a range of 23 Âµm â¤ gs â¤ 40 Âµm were used. As Addit ive Manufacturing technology laser powder bed fusion was used. Diamond slide burnishing and immersed tumbling were investigated as finishing technologies. Based on the investigations, a dedicated process chain for the manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts could be realised. The findings show that the developed process chain composed of near net shape Additive Manufacturing and the finishing process diamond slide burnishing enables the manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts with a geometrical accuracy of ag â¤ 10 Âµm. Due to the finishing process the initial surface roughness after Additive Manufacturing could reduce by Ra = 89 %.
PublicationImproved surface generation of multi-material objects in computed tomography using local histograms( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Hein, C. ;Kayser, N.Duerre, G.During the last decade industrial computed tomography (iCT) has become one of the most important metrological procedures for internal inspection, where it sees wide-spread use in injection molding and additive manufacturing. Evaluating the CT volume data of multi-material objects represents a major technical challenge. Due to artifacts caused by beam hardening, an over-segmentation of strongly absorbing materials occurs, severely limiting the accuracy of dimensional measurements. The goal of the project presented is the development of an innovative artifact-reduced multi-material segmentation. This is applied to and tested on various complex reconstructed CT data sets. Global approaches show high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) but are not able to compensate for local deviations. For smaller volumes the data sets become more consistent, but the SNR decreases due to the reduced data volume. Thus, a more localized approach for the volume image data has the potential to provid e results of higher accuracy. With this newly presented algorithm it is now possible to perform segmentation of all materials, while eliminating over-segmentation errors as well as local noise artifacts almost completely for all tested datasets.
PublicationParticle contact conditions for cutting edge preparation of micro-milling tools by the immersed tumbling process( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Kuche, Y.Landua, F.For increasing tool life and cutting length of micro-milling tools the cutting edge preparation was successfully established. Using the immersed tumbling process, a reproducible cutting edge preparation with constant cutting edge radii as well as low chipping of the cutting edges can be realised. For a profound understanding of the preparation process and the process mechanisms further knowledge about the particle interactions with cutting tools as well as the particle flow mechanisms needs to be obtained. In this investigation the preparation process of micro-milling tools was analysed and the contact-mechanisms as well as the resulting pressures were investigated by simulation studies. Using the discrete element method (DEM) with the software ROCKY DEM from the company ESSS, FlorianÃ³polis, Brasil, the immersed tumbling process could be modelled and particle contacts, particle traces as well as particle interactions with the micro-milling tool can be visualized. Espec ially the particle-tool interactions were more accurately investigated by analysing the stresses and particles shear work as well as correlations between these parameters to prove the comparability between the process simulation and the real preparation process.
PublicationReduction of erosion duration for electrical discharge drilling using a nature analogue algorithm with nested strategy types( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Streckenbach, J.Osmanovic, M.The required high economic efficiency, combined with the corresponding high quality demands, in the aerospace industry as well as in mould and tool making, motivate the necessity of finding suitable parameter combinations for the process of electrical discharge machining (EDM), e.g. when introducing new materials. To counteract this, various methods are being investigated in research for the optimisation of EDM. One new method is the stochastic optimisation procedure evolution strategy (ES). Due to its metaheuristic approach, this optimisation method is excellently suited for very complex processes in which the interrelationship of the individual influencing variables is not known. This publication presents the results of the investigation of the suitability of the ES optimisation method using the example of electrical discharge drilling. For this purpose, two nested ES-types were investigated. The electrode materials used were brass for the tool and stainless steel X5C rNi18-1 for the workpiece. As a result, the erosion duration could be reduced by 30 %. This investigation forms the basis for the use of nested ES types in electrical discharge drilling.
PublicationSimulation and compensation of the thermal behaviour of industrial robots( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J.Mohnke, C.Industrial robot systems offer a flexible, adaptable basis due to their kinematics and their mobility. An influencing variable, which is particularly relevant for processes with long process times tP, is the thermal heating and the associated thermal drift ÎAPt of the tool center point. The maximum deviation from the actual nominal position can reach up to ÎAPt = 1.5 mm. In the investigations, a simulation model for an industrial robot was created and the thermal behaviour was mapped. With this model, the thermal error ÎAPt within the working area can be determined as a function of the current position X and temperature Ï. These data can be used for a targeted correction of the robot path. With the correction by the compensation model the amount of drift for real milling processes could be reduced to a value of ÎAPt = 0.042 mm. The results can help to reduce the influence of thermal heating and the associated thermal drift ÎAPt of the TCP without using cost-intens ive measures with additional hardware and software on external computers for compensating the errors.