Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationSimulating flow behaviour of wet particles within the immersed tumbling process( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Kuche, Y.Landua, F.For many production chains, it is mandatory to involve special finishing of the manufactured parts for the chipping of the edges as well as the polishing of surfaces. One commonly used method is the immersed tumbling process, where any workpiece is dragged through a particle filled container. In many cases, the immersed tumbling process operates in environments with added liquids, leading to changes in particle-tool interaction and general flow behaviour of the used particles. Whilst the discrete element method for simulating particles is mainly limited to dry particles, the used software ROCKY DEM from ESSS, FlorianÃ³polis, Brasil, comes with a built-in liquid-bridge model to simulate water-covered particles and granulate and furthermore an extension for system couplings with Ansys Fluent of the company ANSYS, INC., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The latter can be used to create from both software one three-phase-model with higher amounts of actually simulated water. In thi s study, small amounts of water were added to differently shaped particles using the build-in liquid-bridge model, to analyse and compare the particles flow characteristics in both, wet and dry environments. To gather significant information leading towards precise comparisons, the particles trajectories, velocities and resulting forces against the workpieces can be specifically observed and analysed, whilst this kind of process knowledge could previously never been taken into account without simulation.
PublicationCutting edge preparation of monolithic ceramic milling tools( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Polte, J.Hocke, T.Due to international competition, continuous increases in productivity, product quality and reduction of production costs are required. Especially, the development of milling tools made of innovative cutting materials and application-specific tool geometries for the machining of brittle materials are in focus to overcome these challenges. One approach to improve the performance and the tool behaviour concerning milling of graphite is the use of monolithic ceramic milling tools. Unfortunately, the high brittleness of the ceramic leads to breakouts on the cutting edge during the grinding process. This results in an increased maximum chipping of the cutting edge, which has a significant influence on the milling process. To improve the breakout behaviour, a cutting edge preparation with the immersed tumbling process was applied. To enable a process reliable cutting edge preparation, a suitable lapping medium, the influence of the processing time as well as the depth of imme rsion were investigated. Besides the maximum chipping of the cutting edge, the rounded cutting edge radius was also analysed. The results show that a process reliable cutting edge preparation of monolithic ceramic milling tools with a maximum chipping of the cutting edge RS,max â¤ 3 Âµm and a rounded cutting edge radius of rÎ² â¤ 7 Âµm could be realised. In future investigations, the experimental applicability of monolithic ceramic milling tools will be proved.
PublicationAdditive manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts( 2021)
;Polte, J. ;Polte, M. ;Lahoda, C. ;Hocke, T.Uhlmann, E.Cemented carbide parts are commonly used as wear resistance components in a broad range of industry, e.g. for forming, mould making and matrices. At state of the art the machining of precision cemented carbide components by milling is strongly limited due to excessive tool wear and long machining times. Promising approaches for precision machining of cemented carbide components are dedicated cutting tool coatings, new cutting materials like binderless polycrystalline diamond and ultrasonic-assisted machining. Nevertheless, for all these approaches the components need to be machined of monolithic materials. The new approach addresses an innovative manufacturing process chain composed of near net shape Additive Manufacturing followed by a precision finishing process. Within this investigations for the manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts, cemented carbide with a cobalt content of 17 % and a grain size in a range of 23 Âµm â¤ gs â¤ 40 Âµm were used. As Addit ive Manufacturing technology laser powder bed fusion was used. Diamond slide burnishing and immersed tumbling were investigated as finishing technologies. Based on the investigations, a dedicated process chain for the manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts could be realised. The findings show that the developed process chain composed of near net shape Additive Manufacturing and the finishing process diamond slide burnishing enables the manufacturing of precision cemented carbide parts with a geometrical accuracy of ag â¤ 10 Âµm. Due to the finishing process the initial surface roughness after Additive Manufacturing could reduce by Ra = 89 %.
PublicationParticle contact conditions for cutting edge preparation of micro-milling tools by the immersed tumbling process( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Kuche, Y.Landua, F.For increasing tool life and cutting length of micro-milling tools the cutting edge preparation was successfully established. Using the immersed tumbling process, a reproducible cutting edge preparation with constant cutting edge radii as well as low chipping of the cutting edges can be realised. For a profound understanding of the preparation process and the process mechanisms further knowledge about the particle interactions with cutting tools as well as the particle flow mechanisms needs to be obtained. In this investigation the preparation process of micro-milling tools was analysed and the contact-mechanisms as well as the resulting pressures were investigated by simulation studies. Using the discrete element method (DEM) with the software ROCKY DEM from the company ESSS, FlorianÃ³polis, Brasil, the immersed tumbling process could be modelled and particle contacts, particle traces as well as particle interactions with the micro-milling tool can be visualized. Espec ially the particle-tool interactions were more accurately investigated by analysing the stresses and particles shear work as well as correlations between these parameters to prove the comparability between the process simulation and the real preparation process.
PublicationSimulation and compensation of the thermal behaviour of industrial robots( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J.Mohnke, C.Industrial robot systems offer a flexible, adaptable basis due to their kinematics and their mobility. An influencing variable, which is particularly relevant for processes with long process times tP, is the thermal heating and the associated thermal drift ÎAPt of the tool center point. The maximum deviation from the actual nominal position can reach up to ÎAPt = 1.5 mm. In the investigations, a simulation model for an industrial robot was created and the thermal behaviour was mapped. With this model, the thermal error ÎAPt within the working area can be determined as a function of the current position X and temperature Ï. These data can be used for a targeted correction of the robot path. With the correction by the compensation model the amount of drift for real milling processes could be reduced to a value of ÎAPt = 0.042 mm. The results can help to reduce the influence of thermal heating and the associated thermal drift ÎAPt of the TCP without using cost-intens ive measures with additional hardware and software on external computers for compensating the errors.
PublicationTool wear and surface roughness in micro-milling of aluminium and high-alloyed aluminium materials using cutting tools made of binderless carbide( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Hein, C. ;Polte, J.Wiesner, H.M.Micro-milling can be applied for manufacturing in a wide range of materials and complex geometries. This process is especially important for the aerospace industry. High-alloyed aluminium is a common material for aerospace applications with complex micro- and macro-geometry due to its high wear resistance. The costs-effectiveness of producing these parts can be increased by using tools with improved wear behaviour and higher life times. However, wear-resistant tools are often associated with higher tool costs, which reduces the cost-effectivness of the whole production. An innovative solution is offered by the use of a cutting tool made of binderless tungsten carbide. The micro-milling of conventional and high-alloy aluminium with a new cutting material based on a binderless tungsten carbide is analysed in this investigation. The absence of a binding phase leads to an increased hardness and improves the wear behaviour of these tools. Therefore, tools with a tool diamete r of D = 10 mm were manufactured and there machinability was successfully proven. The feasibility of these innovative tools is demonstrated in a series of experiments. The experimental investigations were carried out on the five-axis high precision machine tool PFM 4024-5D PRIMACON GMBH, PeiÃenberg, Germany, with a workpiece made of TiAl 48-2-2. A surface roughness of Ra = 0.202 Âµm was detected after a path length due to primary motion lc = 70 m without any noticeable wear marks on the cutting tool. These results show the economic potential for milling tools based on binderless carbide for achieving high precision surfaces while reaching high lifetimes.
PublicationMicro-milling of a sprue structure in tungsten carbide-based metal matrix composite( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Polte, M. ;Hein, C. ;Hocke, T.Jahnke, C.Many industries rely on plastic components manufactured by micro-injection moulding. There is a high potential to further increase the cost-effectiveness by machining the moulds needed for this process from non-ferrous metals and reinforcing the parts of the mould, which experience high loads during the micro-injection moulding. Inserting tungsten carbide particles locally into the surface of these non-ferrous metals is one possibility of reinforcement. The resulting metal-matrix-composites (MMC) exhibit the needed wear resistance, while the ground material can be machined very effectively through micro-milling. In contrast, the Micro-milling of these MMC-materials is challenging and so far not state of the art. Thus, this investigation is concerned with the development and qualification of micro-milling parameters for tungsten carbide-based MMC-materials. Binderless polycrystalline diamond as innovative cutting material was applied for this purpose. The goal of the mil ling parameter development was to optimize the surface roughness and the form accuracy for machining an aluminium bronze workpiece reinforced with tungsten carbide particles through laser injection. Based on an analysis of a wide range of process parameters, an optimised milling strategy was applied to machine a sprue structure from the described MMC-material. Different parameter sets are evaluated by analysing the form accuracy and measuring the surface roughness of machined structures. A surface roughness of Ra = 80 nm and form accuracy of a = 3 Âµm could be achieved with optimized micro-milling parameters and qualified the developed parameters for industrial applications.
PublicationEffects on part density for a highly productive manufacturing of WC-Co via laser powder bed fusion( 2021)
;Polte, J. ;Neuwald, T. ;Gordei, A. ;Kersting, R.Uhlmann, E.The additive manufacturing of parts made from difficult-to-weld materials through the usage of preheating temperatures of up to Î0 â¤ 500 Â°C is enabled by newest L-PBF machine tools, such as the RenAM 500Q HT from the company RENISHAW PLC, Wottun-under-Edge, UK. This work aims to delevop processing parameters for the dense and crack-free manufacturing of tungsten-carbide cobalt (WC-Co) via this off-the-shelf machine tool. Therefore the laserpower and scanning speed were varied between 80 W â¤ PL â¤ 350 W and 140 mm/s â¤ vS â¤ 650 mm/s respectively. Furthermore the influence of a continuous and pulsed laser mode was analysed. A focus was set on the identification of parameters that enable a highly productive manufacturing while maintaining a high part density. A parameter set for relative density rel. > 94 % and a buildup rate v = 0.59 mm3/s was developed.
PublicationSensor integration in hybrid additive manufactured parts for real-time monitoring in turbine operations( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Kersting, R. ;Brunner-Schwer, C.Neuwald, T.Real-time monitoring of operation conditions such as tempeatures and vibrations enables efficiency enhancement for maintenance tasks. In energy industry monitoring of critical components such as turbine blades is essential for the operation safety. But the effective recording of critical process data is a challenging task due to the extreme operating conditions. With a hybrid processing approach combining two additive manufacturing technologies new classes of self-monitoring components become possible allowing data acquisition directly inside the component. Using the example of a turbine blade, the hybrid process chain is described. The turbine blade blank is produced via Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) with channels for the integration of high temperature sensors. After integration cavities were closed by Laser Directed Energy Deposition (L-DED) followed by classical milling operations for part finishing. The data acquisition is integrated in state-of-the-art product l ifecycle monitoring (PLM) software to create a digital twin. Evaluation shows that temperature could be successfully monitored at conditions of Î = 550Â°C.
PublicationPrecision finishing of additively manufactured components using the immersed tumbling process( 2021)
;Polte, J. ;Polte, M. ;Hocke, T. ;Lahoda, C.Uhlmann, E.Additive manufacturing enables the production of highly complex metallic components with highest geometrical flexibility in dedicated lightweight construction. For titanium-aluminium alloys, which are used in particular in the aviation industry, powder bed based processes such as the laser powder bed fusion are established. Nevertheless, laser powder bed fusion is limited with regard to the producible surface roughness in a range of 5 Âµm â¤ Ra â¤ 15 Âµm. According to the state of the art, the increase of the geometrical accuracy and the reduction of the surface roughness values of the additive manufactured components are realised by different cutting and non-conventional processes. In this investigation, a new approach for the reduction of the surface roughness values by immersed tumbling was realised. Therefore, additively manufactured square bars made of the titanium alloy Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr were used as sample geometries. An immersed tumbling machine tool with plan etary kinematics for post-processing was applied and the lapping media QZ, HSC 1/500 and M5/400 were evaluated. In addition, the influence of the rotor speed and the holder as well as the depth of immersion were considered as influencing factors. As target values the surface roughness values as well as the rounded edge radius were examined. Within this investigations the surface roughness values could be reduced by more than 90 %. In addition, a targeted rounding of the edges could be obtained, which removed the excess edge height at the part resulting from the laser powder bed fusion process. As a result the immersed tumbling process shows a great suitability as a finishing process for additively manufactured components and is particularly suitable for automated and serial finishing processes.
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