Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationTowards sustainable evolution of bioeconomy: The role of technology and innovation management( 2020)
;Tsog, S. ;Haunschild, J.Orth, R.The bioeconomy has a great potential to contribute to the transformation process of industry landscape and ultimately drive the economy towards sustainability. However, bioeconomy per se is not necessarily sustainable and technology should be an enabler rather than a panacea to all our ecological, social, and economic issues. Therefore, to draw and maximize benefits from bioeconomy in terms of sustainability, we propose that innovative activities should encompass not only novel technologies and bio-based new materials but also multifocal innovations where innovation management plays a substantial role. The knowledge generation and innovation are although at the core of transition towards a more sustainable bio-based economy, to date, there is a significant lack of concepts and models that approach bioeconomy from the innovation management approach. The aim of this paper is to conduct a qualitative literature study on the sustainability challenges that bioeconomy entails thus far using literature databases. Based on our analysis we found that a successful transition to sustainable bioeconomy is conditioned on heterogenous and contested factors in terms of stakeholders, activities, and modes of innovation. In addition, multifocal innovations occur when actors from interdisciplinary fields engage in intensive and continuous interaction where the focus of innovation is allocated to a field of mutually evolving sociotechnical practices that correspond to the aims of the novel paradigm of transformative innovation policy. Firms, therefore, require skilled professionals that have certain capabilities and skills such as: foresight for future markets, ability to deal with complex issues, ability to guide responsible R&D, ability of strategic decision making, manage in-depth innovation systems analysis including value chain analysis. Policy makers, on the other hand, need to acknowledge the essential role of firms in the transformative innovation policy paradigm.
PublicationVeränderte Kompetenzanforderungen im Rahmen von Digitalisierung und Industrie 4.0( 2020)
;Hecklau, F. ;Orth, R. ;Kidschun, F.Tominaj, S.Die digitale Transformation ist zentraler Treiber für Industrie 4.0. Rasante technische Entwicklungen führen dazu, dass sich Anforderungen an die Kompetenzen der Mitarbeiter verändern. Ziel des Beitrags ist es, die Kompetenzen zu identifizieren, die in der Industrie 4.0 eine zentrale Rolle spielen und zukünftig weiter an Bedeutung gewinnen werden. Hierzu werden die Ergebnisse einer Sekundär- und Primärdatenanalyse vorgestellt. Diese Veröffentlichung zielt ferner darauf ab, einen Beitrag zur Harmonisierung der Grundlagen sowie zur weiteren Entwicklung des Kompetenzmanagements in einer von Digitalisierung geprägten Arbeitswelt zu leisten.
PublicationEuropean standardization of innovation management: The sufficiency of the CEN/TS 16555 in the 6th generation of innovation management( 2019)
;Cap, J.-P. ;Hinzmann, F. ;Kohl, H.Orth, R.Although being an innovator is an important role to play for significant growth and profitability of firms to gain competitive advantages, companies struggle to find and implement an efficient and effective innovation management system and innovation process for new product development (Salomo et al. 2007). The emerge of innovations is rarely incidentally, therefore, require a systematic approach. To enhance the innovation system, companies are constrained to develop and implement the necessary framework for all innovation activity. Contrary to regular management objectives, innovation management can constrain new barriers and unknown challenges and requires therefore a different approach compared to routine functions (Granig und Perusch 2012). The CEN/TS 16555 has the objective to prescribe technical requirements to be fulfilled for the development and implementation of a sustainable innovation management system into an organisation. The centre of this innovation management model is the innovation process which starts with an idea and ends with innovation results. As organisational aspects, such as innovation supportive leadership, strategy, factors and techniques are key elements of this model, the innovation process get enriched by assessment, improvement and planning of the process itself (Technical Specification 16555-1). This paper investigates the current European standardization activity regarding the implementation of innovation management approaches to tackle the abovementioned challenge of the implementation of innovation management in reference to the in DIN Spec CEN/TS 16555 introduced in 2016 by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). This paper will analyse the CEN/TS 16555 for its sufficiency regarding the bigger picture of innovation management by linking it to main literature and best practices. For the comparison of the specification and the innovation management requirements and purposes, this paper will specifically focus on the innovation management framework in the 6 generation of innovation management.
PublicationDevelopment of an organizational structure model as a basis for the assessment of the digital transformation of organizations( 2019)
;Kidschun, F. ;Hecklau, F. ;Orth, R. ;Wackernagel, J.P.Singer, K.The digital transformation has a significant impact on organizations of all sectors. New business models and business processes are establishing themselves; the development of products and services is changing as well as the interaction with customers, partners and suppliers. As these changes create new requirements for organizations, they need to re-orientate and adapt to these requirements. Accordingly, they must know their own position within this changing environment. Against this background, organizational processes and models need to be revised. The aim of this contribution is the development of a model that describes the organizational structure consisting of relevant elements of corporate development and their interaction in the context of digital transformation. This serves as a basis for the derivation and structuring of assessment items with regard to the creation of an assessment model, which will allow the self-assessment of the status quo of organizations on their specific path of digital transformation.
PublicationComparative analysis of German and Brazilian innovation systems to improve binational cooperation( 2017)
;Melo, G. ;Haunschild, J. ;Orth, R. ;Will, M.Kohl, H.Brazil is the core economy of Latin America, and Germany plays that role for the EU. Bilateral relations between Brazil and Germany are long-standing and comprehensive. For more than 140 years, Brazil and Germany have been connected by active bilateral diplomatic relations. Based on this solid relation and their economic positions, it is interesting to find means of collaboration, especially in long-term strategies as innovation. Based on broadly literature review, this study attempts to identify strength and weaknesses of each National Innovation System through a framework that comprises six different functions and three types of interactions between the actors in the system. They are policy formulation, performing R&D, financing R&D, promotion of human resource development, technology bridging, promotion of technological entrepreneurship; R&D collaboration, technology diffusion, labour mobility. This research contributes to a new perspective that is particularly interested in the differences in these structures in developing countries and countries at the frontier. Besides, the outcome of this study guides insights on how two leading economies, which have historical great relations, could better cooperate in innovation, science and technology field. This study attempts to examine, by means of a SWOT analysis, the Brazilian and German Innovation System in order to suggest improvements on each system and the binational cooperation concerning science, technology and innovation. The first step of the paper is the identification of the strengths and weakness in each National Innovation System based on library resources, articles, reports and other secondary data. In a second step, through interviews with relevant experts, the study tries to clarify the opportunities and threats on the binational cooperation.
PublicationIntellectual capital statements as a driver for regional development( 2015)
;Kohl, H. ;Wuscher, S. ;Orth, R.Steinhöfel, E.The definition of Intellectual Capital (IC) and the methodology of creating Intellectual Capital Statements (ICS) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) as well as in larger companies and organizational networks have been adequately researched over the last years. The experience gained from more than 1.000 implementations of ICS in European companies has been utilized to derive a standard set of 15 IC factors according to the common categorization into Human Capital, Structural Capital and Relational Capital, which is stable and mainly applicable on the company-level. Since the concept of IC on the company level has been established, first investigations have started to come up with different concepts of IC and ICS on the regional level. These concepts show that both, the definition of IC and the procedure for implementing ICS on the regional level, are not adequately investigated yet though. Therefore, the requirement is to develop and test a stable regional IC concept, meaning a suitable definition of IC and an adjusted procedure for implementing ICS on the regional level. Against this background, the paper at hand seeks to illustrate a conceptual framework for determining and measuring IC on different actor levels (micro, meso and macro level). The illustration of the conceptual framework is based on a literature review of four different regional IC concepts from Germany and of further existing Intellectual Capital concepts on regional and national level. The findings indicate that the definition of IC and the procedure of implementing ICS on the regional level are not adequately investigated yet and an adapted procedure with a balanced combination of quantitative measurement and qualitative assessment of IC is required. The paper introduces a preliminary set of harmonized IC success factors for regions based on a recent survey and workshop with more than 65 representatives from the local and regional level in Germany carried out in September 2014. Furthermore, the paper discusses possible approaches of procedures for implementing Intellectual Capital Statements on the regional level, which is and will be investigated further on in current and planned research projects.
PublicationFostering organisational innovation through intellectual capital management( 2015)
;Galeitzke, M. ;Steinhöfel, E. ;Orth, R.Kohl, H.Knowledge and innovation have always played a crucial role in economic and social development (Kefala, 2010). As enterprises are facing constantly transforming framework conditions knowledge and innovation continue to gain importance in research and practice as means to realise sound economic, social and ecologic development. As mere product or incremental process innovations are neither a guarantee for success nor sufficient to cope with the emerging information, knowledge and time-competition (Stern and Jaberg, 2010) and as business model innovation has received increasing attention in times of change (Chesbrough, 2010; Amit and Zott, 2010) the latter shall be investigated complementarily. Design/methodology/approach - Building up on the results of previous research (Kohl et al., 2014) derived measures to improve the enterprises' innovation capability are analysed on the basis of 38 Intellectual Capital Statements. Furthermore, the data gained from a large scale survey among more than 1000 enterprises is analysed with regard to product as well as process innovation and are matched with the results gained from the analysis of the 38 ICS. Originality/value - The significance of intangible resources with regard to business success in general has evidently increased and may in some cases already be assessed as higher than the impact of tangible resources (Mertins et al., 2011; Kohl et al., 2014). This paper aims to draw conclusions on a broad empirical basis with regard to internal drivers of innovation and related differences between manufacturing and service enterprises. Practical implications - The analysis of the direct and indirect correlations between intellectual capital and innovation capabilities and the empirical foundation of these correlations allows sound statements regarding those intellectual capital factors, that should be focused by service and manufacturing enterprises to foster innovation. The examination of literature on intellectual capital and business model innovation builds the theoretical basis for future research with regard to those aspects and may show possible avenues for integrating business model innovation and intellectual capital management.
PublicationBuilding up National Intellectual Capital Center as a national innovation strategy( 2015)
;Wuscher, S. ;Kohl, H.Orth, R.Purpose of this paper is, to show the experiences from the German and European pilot projects where the developments in Germany let into a national Intellectual Capital (IC) System with different stakeholder groups. The paper shows how the German IC Center has been built up and how the different stakeholder groups spread the idea of using Intellectual Capital Statements (ICS) as a continuous management instrument to improve innovation and the future development of organizations. The paper includes how the crucial functions "qualification & training", "implementation", "quality assurance" and "dissemination" regarding IC are organized in Germany and what results have been achieved since the movement started in 2008. Approach: The definition of IC and the methodology of proceeding ICS in small and medium - sized enterprises as well as in larger companies and organizational networks have been adequately researched in the last years. Originally started as a pilot project "Intellectual Capital Statement - Made in Germany" in the "Fit fur den Wissenswettbewerb" (Fit for the Knowledge Competition) initiative, and funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, the concept of ICS is now established across Germany as a national movement of IC training, implementation and quality assurance. Furthermore the German researchers collected experiences on the European level in the European pilot - project "Intellectual Capital Statement Made in Europe (InCaS)". The concept of Intellectual Capital has thus far been researched and tested specifically with regard to enterprises and as a concept of establishing national IC Center. The experiences from Germany are the basis for the adaptation of establishing national IC Center worldwide. Value and practical implications: The paper will practically show how a national IC Center in Germany is working and how this concept is transferable to other countries which could benefit from developments and results on the practical and theoretical side "made in Germany". The paper will also outline actual research activities on defining a regional concept of IC to close the gap between the well investigated concept of IC on the company level (micro) and the concept of national IC (macro).
PublicationProcess-oriented knowledge management in SMEs( 2014)
;Kohl, H. ;Orth, R.Steinhöfel, E.Against the background of global competition and increasingly dynamic markets, the importance of knowledge has been growing dramatically, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). SMEs have to be more innovative, flexible, and efficient to successfully cope with typical challenges such as growing competition and rapidly changing demand patterns. In the past, knowledge management has been successfully implemented and developed by large enterprises in particular. In contrast, knowledge management for SME is not a matter of course yet. However, current survey results affirm that activities in the area of knowledge management depend less on the size of an enterprise or its industry, but rather on an enterprise's business strategy and core competencies. In the light of these results, SMEs seem not to have disadvantages regarding the implementation of knowledge management because of their size or industry, but rather because they need to take strategic decisions to implement such solutions and have difficulties in doing so. Against this background, the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology started the initiative "Fit fur den Wissenswettberb" to support especially SMEs on the way to the knowledge society. In the course of the initiative, the research institutes Fraunhofer IPK and Fraunhofer IFF initiated the project " ProWis - Prozessorientiertes und integriertes Wissensmanagement in KMU". Within this project, researchers designed methods meeting the specific needs of SMEs allowing the implementation of process-oriented knowledge management at reasonable efforts. Building up on the developed methods, both institutes accompanied 15 SMEs during the implementation of knowledge management and used the findings from these implementations to refine the methods. The results of the project are summarized in the guideline " Praxisleitfaden Wissensmanagement", which is freely accessible to interested parties and enables SMEs to systematically and autonomously implement knowledge management. Based on the aforementioned results, this article illustrates the process-oriented implementation of knowledge management according to the ProWis approach and, by means of a case study, leads the reader through the single steps of the implementation process towards a business process-oriented knowledge management.
PublicationIC future check: Greater transparency within the credit process( 2014)
;Wuscher, S. ;Kohl, H.Orth, R.Field reports and surveys have shown that complementing financial data with information on intangibles can sharpen the view on creditworthiness of an organisation. Especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) are facing the challenge that the intangibles which thus far have not been taken into account are to make transparent for their respective banks. At the same time banks adopt such qualitative information in their lending decisions to optimize their risk portfolio. This paper presents the tool box "IC Future Check" which has been developed and tested in cooperation with financial institutions and businesses within a project for the German Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology. In this context it shows how the "IC Future Check" systematically supports the communication between bank and business and increases the transparency of intangibles. In a case study of a German SME the practical use of the "IC Future Check" is demonstrated in the credit lending process. The presented tool "IC Future Check" can provide significant support to the communication between SMEs and banks and to reduce existing information asymmetries. This puts SMEs in position to present their future potential in a structured way and to show the transparency regarding their intangible success factors.
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