Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationIn situ microstructure analysis of Inconel 625 during laser powder bed fusion( 2022)
;Schmeiser, F. ;Krohmer, E. ;Wagner, C. ;Schell, N. ;Uhlmann, E.Reimers, W.Laser powder bed fusion is an additive manufacturing process that employs highly focused laser radiation for selective melting of a metal powder bed. This process entails a complex heat flow and thermal management that results in characteristic, often highly textured microstructures, which lead to mechanical anisotropy. In this study, high-energy X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out to illuminate the formation and evolution of microstructural features during LPBF. The nickel-base alloy Inconel 625 was used for in situ experiments using a custom LPBF system designed for these investigations. The diffraction patterns yielded results regarding texture, lattice defects, recrystallization, and chemical segregation. A combination of high laser power and scanning speed results in a strong preferred crystallographic orientation, while low laser power and scanning speed showed no clear texture. The observation of a constant gauge volume revealed solid-state texture changes without remelting. They were related to in situ recrystallization processes caused by the repeated laser scanning. After recrystallization, the formation and growth of segregations were deduced from an increasing diffraction peak asymmetry and confirmed by ex situ scanning transmission electron microscopy.
PublicationNumerical investigation into cleanability of support structures produced by powder bed fusion technology( 2022)
;Campana, G. ;Uhlmann, E. ;Mele, M. ;Raffaelli, L. ;Bergmann, A. ;Kochan, J.Polte, J.Purpose: Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them. Design/methodology/approach: This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design. Findings: The resul ts, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes. Originality/value: This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.
PublicationOptimizing the sharpening process of hybrid-bonded diamond grinding wheels by means of a process model( 2022)
;Uhlmann, E.Muthulingam, A.The grinding wheel topography influences the cutting performance and thus the economic efficiency of a grinding process. In contrary to conventional grinding wheels, super abrasive grinding wheels should undergo an additional sharpening process after the initial profiling process to obtain a suitable microstructure of the grinding wheel. Due to the lack of scientific knowledge, the sharpening process is mostly performed manually in industrial practice. A CNC-controlled sharpening process can not only improve the reproducibility of grinding processes but also decrease the secondary processing time and thereby increase the economic efficiency significantly. To optimize the sharpening process, experimental investigations were carried out to identify the significant sharpening parameters influencing the grinding wheel topography. The sharpening block width lSb, the grain size of the sharpening block dkSb and the area-related material removal in sharpening VâSb were identi fied as the most significant parameters. Additional experiments were performed to further quantify the influence of the significant sharpening parameters. Based on that, a process model was developed to predict the required sharpening parameters for certain target topographies. By using the process model, constant work results and improved process reliability can be obtained.
PublicationModeling of the wet immersed tumbling process with the Discrete Element Method (DEM)( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Fürstenau, J.-P. ;Kuche, Y. ;Yabroudi, S. ;Polte, J.Polte, M.Immersed tumbling is an industrially established process for finishing of components made of metal, ceramic or plastic. In this process, the components are completely surrounded by a wet, abrasive medium, which allows burrs to be removed and surfaces to be polished. In order to gain specific insights into the influence and flow properties of the abrasive media used in this process, numerical approaches using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) with the Rocky DEM software are presented within these investigations. A complete process simulation could be realised by means of a digital machine tool. The immersed tumbling process with cone-shaped polymer abrasive media is implemented by use of a liquid bridge model. The results were validated by experiments with an industrially used immersed tumbling machine tool and for the first time allow sound statements about the contact conditions and interactions of the abrasive media with the workpiece.
PublicationMeasurement and Modeling of Contact Forces during Robot-guided Drag Finishing( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E.Kopp, M.Robot-guided drag finishing is a free abrasive grinding operation that is used for polishing and deburring of workpieces with complex shaped geometries. The workpiece is attached to a robot and moved through a bulk of abrasive particles. The motion of abrasive particles during contact with the workpiece is the basis of the material removal mechanisms. To investigate the motion of abrasive particles during contact, a force measurement system was used to determine contact forces. The experimental setup was replicated in a numerical simulation based on the discrete element method (DEM). Based on the comparison of experimental and simulative results the qualitative validity of the DEM model was concluded. With the presented DEM model, the characteristic particle behavior during contact with the workpiece can be modeled which allows the prediction of resulting processing marks. Consequently, the DEM model can be used to design free abrasive grinding operations without using the time and cost intensive trial and error approach.
PublicationMit dem Wasserabrasivstrahl in eine neue Dimension( 2021)
;Reder, W. ;Uhlmann, E.Anders, S.
PublicationAdvances in Modeling of the Kerf Formation considering the Primary and Deflection Jets for the Abrasive Water Jet Technology( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Kruggel-Emden, H. ;Männel, C. ;Barth, E.Markauskas, D.Processing of difficult to machine materials is a promising application for abrasive water jet kerf cutting and milling. However, due to the large number of interactions of an energy-bound cutting process, a precise prediction of the material removal is crucial for its application. Based on an analytical approach, a material removal simulation model is introduced considering the primary and deflecting jet impacts to rapidly predict various cutting situations. The model describes fundamental cutting mechanisms considering the water jet's material removal rate and is calibrated for titanium aluminides. The model allows for a comprehensive kerf prediction and thus potentially accelerates the process design improving the productivity and quality for abrasive water jet kerf cutting and milling.
PublicationEx Situ Residual Stress Analysis of Chemical Vapor Deposited Diamond Coated Cutting Tools by Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction in Transmission Geometry( 2021)
;Hinzmann, D. ;Böttcher, K. ;Reimers, W.Uhlmann, E.When machining difficult-to-cut, nonferrous materials, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond-coated cutting tools are applied. The tools' favorable mechanical property profile is based on the hardness of the coating as well as the adaptability of the substrate. Nevertheless, the reproducibility of machining results and process stability are limited by insufficient coating adhesion. The resulting cutting tool failure is based on coating delamination initiated by crack development. By assessing residual stress as an influence of coating adhesion, an analysis of CVD diamond-coated tools is performed using synchrotron X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry. Investigation of a nanocrystalline and multilayer morphology on cobalt-based tungsten carbide (WC-Co) and a silicon nitride-based ceramic (Si3N4) provides the distribution of the principal in-plane residual stress tensor component s22 depending on the coating morphology and substrate material. Contrary to microcrystalline CVD diamond, nanocrystalline layers decrease the compressive residual stress. In addition, the CVD diamond coating deposited on the Si3N4 substrate material tends to induce an overall initial tensile residual stress that leads to increased tool performance compared to WC-Co-based coated tools. Variation of the coating morphology as well as the substrate material offers the possibility to extend the current model for residual stress-dependent tool failure.
PublicationMachine Learning of Surface Layer Property Prediction for Milling Operations( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Holznagel, T. ;Schehl, P.Bode, Y.Tool wear and cutting parameters have a significant effect on the surface layer properties in milling. Since the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters, and surface layer properties is mostly unknown, the latter cannot be controlled during production and may vary from part to part as tool wear progresses. To account for this uncertainty and to prevent premature failure, components often need to be oversized or surface layer properties need to be adjusted in subsequent manufacturing processes. Several approaches have been made to obtain models that predict the surface layer properties induced by manufacturing processes. However, those approaches need to be calibrated with a considerable number of experimental trials. As trials are time-consuming and surface layer measurements are laborious, no industrial applications have been realized. Complex models have one major drawback. They have to be re-parameterized as soon as process characteristics change. Therefore, manual experimental parameterization does not appear to be a feasible approach for industrial application. A highly automated approach for the machine learning of the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters and surface layer properties is presented in this paper. The amount of obtained measurement data allows a fundamental analysis of the approach, which paves the way for further developments.
PublicationSimulating flow behaviour of wet particles within the immersed tumbling process( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Kuche, Y.Landua, F.For many production chains, it is mandatory to involve special finishing of the manufactured parts for the chipping of the edges as well as the polishing of surfaces. One commonly used method is the immersed tumbling process, where any workpiece is dragged through a particle filled container. In many cases, the immersed tumbling process operates in environments with added liquids, leading to changes in particle-tool interaction and general flow behaviour of the used particles. Whilst the discrete element method for simulating particles is mainly limited to dry particles, the used software ROCKY DEM from ESSS, FlorianÃ³polis, Brasil, comes with a built-in liquid-bridge model to simulate water-covered particles and granulate and furthermore an extension for system couplings with Ansys Fluent of the company ANSYS, INC., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The latter can be used to create from both software one three-phase-model with higher amounts of actually simulated water. In thi s study, small amounts of water were added to differently shaped particles using the build-in liquid-bridge model, to analyse and compare the particles flow characteristics in both, wet and dry environments. To gather significant information leading towards precise comparisons, the particles trajectories, velocities and resulting forces against the workpieces can be specifically observed and analysed, whilst this kind of process knowledge could previously never been taken into account without simulation.