Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationDemand-oriented barriers and potentials for remanufacturing in Vietnam( 2020)
;Guidat, T. ;Wewer, A. ;Kohl, H.Seliger, G.Since the liberalisation of its economy, Vietnam has emerged as a key location for investment in workforce-intensive assembly processes operation, through an available and cheap workforce. Soaring national consumption levels for goods and services generate in turn unprecedented quantities of waste to be treated locally. In 2015, governmental decision 16/2015/QÐ-TTg set a basis for a national waste legislation for mechanical and electronic equipment goods. Remanufacturing is a non-destructive, industrial reuse strategy which aims at restoring products to original specifications by reusing a maximum number of original components in their current form. It has potential to provide Vietnam with an alternative to low value-added repair activities. As Vietnam is the fourth market for motorcycles in the world, this paper presents a case study about barriers and potentials for remanufacturing from the market and customer perspective. Potential solutions for supporting industrial development are suggested.
PublicationAugmented learning for industrial education( 2020)
;Menn, J.P. ;Severengiz, M. ;Lorenz, A.K. ;Wassermann, J. ;Ulbrich, C. ;Krüger, J.Seliger, G.An efficient learning environment is required to cope with today's increasing innovation speed. Companies need methods and tools to transfer knowledge to employees in a fast way. Learners' cognitive focus should be shifted towards learning at the learning object, instead of transferring information from teaching material to the real world. Current learning environments are mostly incapable to merge physical learning tools with digital content at its point of use; therefore, the learner has to do it. Augmented reality offers the opportunity to show learning content directly on physical objects and to interact with it. Within this paper, two approaches on how to use augmented reality for teaching purposes are shown. One is for special machinery assembly of turbomachinery and the other for cocoa liquor production.
PublicationSerious Game on Factory Planning for Higher Education( 2020)
;Severengiz, M. ;Seliger, G.Krüger, J.Research has shown that student-centered classes are a promising approach to enhance learning. Even though this is well known, classes are often still designed in teacher-centered classes like lectures. However, lectures do not promote desired higher cognitive levels, which are needed for tackling the complex, all-embracing sustainability challenge. One promising approach to go for these higher levels is the usage of serious games. In this paper Factory Planner, a serious game on the VDI 5200 regarding factory planning, is presented. Factory Planner is a board game enhanced by an application. The game was evaluated with a pre- and post-game test measuring the knowledge gains at a bachelor's class. Further, a survey filled out by the students was conducted, which indicates a positive effect of Factory Planner on addressed learning goals and on students' motivation towards factory planning.
PublicationOpen Educational Resources as a Driver for Manufacturing-related Education for Learning of Sustainable Development( 2017)
;Roeder, I. ;Severengiz, M. ;Stark, R.Seliger, G.Since the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) launched its OpenCourseWare program in 2002, the idea of an open and democratic education has spread rapidly all over the globe. Under the name of ""Open Educational Resources"" (OER), innumerable working sheets, curricular and teaching units have been developed and shared digitally under free commons licenses, connecting teachers and learners worldwide. Especially with regard to the UNESCO Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Program, the concept has been allocated a pole position. However, challenges arise when it comes to matters of repository design, traceability, quality control and user acceptance. In this paper studies are presented that assess German and English manufacturing-related OER for sustainability education, targeting high school students, showing challenges and potentials of open education for sustainable manufacturing. It will be shown that classic schoolbooks leave inacceptable gaps when covering sustainable development by ignoring both, core issues of sustainable development and central didactic standards of Education for Sustainable Development such as competency-orientation. Although there are a number of German and English OER initiatives that could help close these gaps, they often do not make use of the full OER potential, as will be shown via quality assessment and a comparative analysis. Finally, an OER development process of the Collaborative Research Centre 1026 ""Sustainable Manufacturing"" will be described as a best practice example.
PublicationA Comparison of Best Practices of Public and Private Support Incentives for the Remanufacturing Industry( 2017)
;Guidat, T. ;Seidel, J. ;Kohl, H.Seliger, G.In the context of resource constraints and the negative environmental and social impacts of the linear "take-make-dispose" pattern, remanufacturing offers a promising solution for the transformation of end of life (EOL) goods into products with equal or superior specifications and lifetime as compared with newly produced goods. The increasing success of this new industrial paradigm results from the possible combination of production costs reduction and profit maximization as well as efforts to increase environmental performance and harvest social benefits, such as job creation. However, a large number of countries faces challenges in building a valuable process because of the lack of communication between public and private stakeholder and the remanufacturing industry. This paper intends to identify and classify the key stakeholders in categories and define the type of actions taken in selected countries to foster remanufacturing. Guidance for both public and private actors are suggested for the development of specific remanufacturing industries.
PublicationA model for the development of sustainable innovations for the early phase of the innovation process( 2017)
;Stock, T. ;Obenaus, M. ;Slaymaker, A.Seliger, G.Current industrial development is faced by the global challenge to meet the continuously growing demand for capital and consumer goods in emerging countries while simultaneously ensuring a sustainable industrial growth in the social, environmental and economic dimension. By means of market dynamics of cooperation and competition in global value creation and knowledge networks, innovations geared towards sustainability can be essential drivers for realizing a sustainable development. The targeted development of new sustainable innovations is consequently a key activity in order to move towards sustainable industrial growth. This paper will describe a model for the development of sustainable innovations. The model focuses on idea generation in the early phase of the innovations process, addressing the fuzzy front end of innovation. In this context, specific goals and principles of sustainable development are integrated into a problem-solving approach. This integrated approach is subsequently used as a foundation for the targeted development of sustainable innovations in the frame of a workshop concept.
PublicationOnline Fault-monitoring in Machine Tools Based on Energy Consumption Analysis and Non-invasive Data Acquisition for Improved Resource-efficiency( 2016)
;Emec, S. ;Krüger, J.Seliger, G.Improving the overall equipment effectiveness of machine tools will improve resource-efficiency and productivity in manufacturing. First step to achieve more effectiveness would require sensors for monitoring of machine availability and quality of machining processes. Abnormal machine conditions are characterized by fault-pattern, which can indicate failure and quality losses. Further, machine failure can shorten the remaining useful life of the components and affect the products. Therefore, it is essential to determine a valuable data source which will enable the extraction of fault-pattern and the allocation of these pattern to machining processes. However, this can be challenging due to lack of open source control architecture, different machine types and automation degree, changing operating loads, and dynamic failure rates in a real environment. Retrofit for online analysis of electrical power intake of machine tools seems to satisfy this challenge. A fault-monitoring framework for manufacturing equipment has been proposed in this paper, based on data stream mining techniques for online pattern matching in electrical power data streams. Complex event processing is applied to ensure scalable data processing for large data volumes and automate the reporting in order to assign the fault-patterns to machining processes and products. This concept is introduced as energy-based maintenance and validated for a powertrain machining line in milling and drilling machines.
PublicationMotion Tracking Applied in Assembly for Worker Training in different Locations( 2016)
;Müller, B.C. ;Nguyen, T.D. ;Dang, Q.-V. ;Duc, B.M. ;Seliger, G. ;Krüger, J.Kohl, H.In cooperation between a German and a Vietnamese manufacturing laboratory, activities of training for assembly are performed by support of motion tracking at similar workplaces. The assembly of bicycle e-hubs is trained with Vietnamese students to check the transfer of assembly process knowledge between distant countries. The experimental set-up consists of the remote ""teach-in"" of assembly instructions, motion tracking on workplaces and the evaluation of student's performance. The applicability of motion tracking vs. traditional paper based instructions for initial learning is investigated.
PublicationSustainability Factors for PSS Business Models( 2016)
;Barquet, A.P. ;Seidel, J. ;Seliger, G.Kohl, H.A fundamental change in how businesses are conducted and operated is an essential factor to reach more sustainable solutions not only on the industry level but also for the entire society. In this sense, the importance of developing and implementing sustainable product service system (S-PSS) business models is increasing as the number of studies are presenting it. A S-PSS business model is an approach to achieve benefits in the three dimensions of sustainability. Through efficient resource utilization and dematerialization, this type of sustainable business model helps to embed environmental and social aspects into strategic business goals and processes while increases competitive advantage. However, most of the studies that treats PSS business models do not mention their relation to sustainability. In addition, different studies take for granted that implementing PSS leads to benefits in the three sustainability dimensions. Nonetheless, PSS business models can even have a negative effect on the environment while maintaining only economic benefits. Such contradictions and incoherencies hinder the potential of PSS business models to provide sustainability benefits and might be a barrier for its adoption. Therefore, the question this study pursues is: What are the factors that make a PSS a sustainable business model? Through literature analysis, this paper proposes the identification of a set of factors that contributes to the sustainability of PSS business models. The factors identified are investigated in an exemplary case of a bike sharing system.
PublicationAdaptive Qualification and Assistance Modules for Manual Assembly Workplaces( 2015)
;Nguyen, T.D. ;McFarland, R. ;Kleinsorge, M. ;Krüger, J.Seliger, G.Enterprises must be able to make decisions for increasing process effectiveness and efficiency in view of shrinking natural resources. A globalised work force has to be made aware of the challenges in resource scarcity and material wealth. Special attention has also to be paid on health and safety at work due to recent demographic developments. We present two solutions based on human motion capture technology which can improve efficiency while enabling ergonomic working, thus addressing challenges in sustainable manufacturing. With a qualification module, intuitive work descriptions can be generated and distributed. An assistance module automatically adjusts the workplace to enable working in a comfortable pose. First tests regarding our qualification module show the ability to implicitly convey knowledge during simple working tasks. Studies on the assistance module show its capabilities to predict what test subjects working at the workplace would consider as configuration for ""comfortable"" and ""ergonomic"" working.