Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
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PublicationImpact of a Sustainable Manufacturing-Related Learning Game on Basic Knowledge and Network Thinking( 2017)
;Roeder, I. ;Severengiz, M. ;Stark, R.Seliger, G.Modern challenges require modern thinking, which again calls for modern teaching methods. The complex field of sustainable manufacturing cannot be taught out of school books but must be experienced. Learning games have a great potential for that. Therefore, to meet the gap in educational resources in the field of sustainable manufacturing, a learning game for high school students has been developed and its effect tested with 76 players.
PublicationOpen Educational Resources as a Driver for Manufacturing-related Education for Learning of Sustainable Development( 2017)
;Roeder, I. ;Severengiz, M. ;Stark, R.Seliger, G.Since the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) launched its OpenCourseWare program in 2002, the idea of an open and democratic education has spread rapidly all over the globe. Under the name of ""Open Educational Resources"" (OER), innumerable working sheets, curricular and teaching units have been developed and shared digitally under free commons licenses, connecting teachers and learners worldwide. Especially with regard to the UNESCO Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Program, the concept has been allocated a pole position. However, challenges arise when it comes to matters of repository design, traceability, quality control and user acceptance. In this paper studies are presented that assess German and English manufacturing-related OER for sustainability education, targeting high school students, showing challenges and potentials of open education for sustainable manufacturing. It will be shown that classic schoolbooks leave inacceptable gaps when covering sustainable development by ignoring both, core issues of sustainable development and central didactic standards of Education for Sustainable Development such as competency-orientation. Although there are a number of German and English OER initiatives that could help close these gaps, they often do not make use of the full OER potential, as will be shown via quality assessment and a comparative analysis. Finally, an OER development process of the Collaborative Research Centre 1026 ""Sustainable Manufacturing"" will be described as a best practice example.
PublicationA Comparison of Best Practices of Public and Private Support Incentives for the Remanufacturing Industry( 2017)
;Guidat, T. ;Seidel, J. ;Kohl, H.Seliger, G.In the context of resource constraints and the negative environmental and social impacts of the linear "take-make-dispose" pattern, remanufacturing offers a promising solution for the transformation of end of life (EOL) goods into products with equal or superior specifications and lifetime as compared with newly produced goods. The increasing success of this new industrial paradigm results from the possible combination of production costs reduction and profit maximization as well as efforts to increase environmental performance and harvest social benefits, such as job creation. However, a large number of countries faces challenges in building a valuable process because of the lack of communication between public and private stakeholder and the remanufacturing industry. This paper intends to identify and classify the key stakeholders in categories and define the type of actions taken in selected countries to foster remanufacturing. Guidance for both public and private actors are suggested for the development of specific remanufacturing industries.
PublicationA model for the development of sustainable innovations for the early phase of the innovation process( 2017)
;Stock, T. ;Obenaus, M. ;Slaymaker, A.Seliger, G.Current industrial development is faced by the global challenge to meet the continuously growing demand for capital and consumer goods in emerging countries while simultaneously ensuring a sustainable industrial growth in the social, environmental and economic dimension. By means of market dynamics of cooperation and competition in global value creation and knowledge networks, innovations geared towards sustainability can be essential drivers for realizing a sustainable development. The targeted development of new sustainable innovations is consequently a key activity in order to move towards sustainable industrial growth. This paper will describe a model for the development of sustainable innovations. The model focuses on idea generation in the early phase of the innovations process, addressing the fuzzy front end of innovation. In this context, specific goals and principles of sustainable development are integrated into a problem-solving approach. This integrated approach is subsequently used as a foundation for the targeted development of sustainable innovations in the frame of a workshop concept.
PublicationOnline Fault-monitoring in Machine Tools Based on Energy Consumption Analysis and Non-invasive Data Acquisition for Improved Resource-efficiency( 2016)
;Emec, S. ;Krüger, J.Seliger, G.Improving the overall equipment effectiveness of machine tools will improve resource-efficiency and productivity in manufacturing. First step to achieve more effectiveness would require sensors for monitoring of machine availability and quality of machining processes. Abnormal machine conditions are characterized by fault-pattern, which can indicate failure and quality losses. Further, machine failure can shorten the remaining useful life of the components and affect the products. Therefore, it is essential to determine a valuable data source which will enable the extraction of fault-pattern and the allocation of these pattern to machining processes. However, this can be challenging due to lack of open source control architecture, different machine types and automation degree, changing operating loads, and dynamic failure rates in a real environment. Retrofit for online analysis of electrical power intake of machine tools seems to satisfy this challenge. A fault-monitoring framework for manufacturing equipment has been proposed in this paper, based on data stream mining techniques for online pattern matching in electrical power data streams. Complex event processing is applied to ensure scalable data processing for large data volumes and automate the reporting in order to assign the fault-patterns to machining processes and products. This concept is introduced as energy-based maintenance and validated for a powertrain machining line in milling and drilling machines.
PublicationMotion Tracking Applied in Assembly for Worker Training in different Locations( 2016)
;Müller, B.C. ;Nguyen, T.D. ;Dang, Q.-V. ;Duc, B.M. ;Seliger, G. ;Krüger, J.Kohl, H.In cooperation between a German and a Vietnamese manufacturing laboratory, activities of training for assembly are performed by support of motion tracking at similar workplaces. The assembly of bicycle e-hubs is trained with Vietnamese students to check the transfer of assembly process knowledge between distant countries. The experimental set-up consists of the remote ""teach-in"" of assembly instructions, motion tracking on workplaces and the evaluation of student's performance. The applicability of motion tracking vs. traditional paper based instructions for initial learning is investigated.
PublicationSustainability Factors for PSS Business Models( 2016)
;Barquet, A.P. ;Seidel, J. ;Seliger, G.Kohl, H.A fundamental change in how businesses are conducted and operated is an essential factor to reach more sustainable solutions not only on the industry level but also for the entire society. In this sense, the importance of developing and implementing sustainable product service system (S-PSS) business models is increasing as the number of studies are presenting it. A S-PSS business model is an approach to achieve benefits in the three dimensions of sustainability. Through efficient resource utilization and dematerialization, this type of sustainable business model helps to embed environmental and social aspects into strategic business goals and processes while increases competitive advantage. However, most of the studies that treats PSS business models do not mention their relation to sustainability. In addition, different studies take for granted that implementing PSS leads to benefits in the three sustainability dimensions. Nonetheless, PSS business models can even have a negative effect on the environment while maintaining only economic benefits. Such contradictions and incoherencies hinder the potential of PSS business models to provide sustainability benefits and might be a barrier for its adoption. Therefore, the question this study pursues is: What are the factors that make a PSS a sustainable business model? Through literature analysis, this paper proposes the identification of a set of factors that contributes to the sustainability of PSS business models. The factors identified are investigated in an exemplary case of a bike sharing system.
PublicationAdaptive Qualification and Assistance Modules for Manual Assembly Workplaces( 2015)
;Nguyen, T.D. ;McFarland, R. ;Kleinsorge, M. ;Krüger, J.Seliger, G.Enterprises must be able to make decisions for increasing process effectiveness and efficiency in view of shrinking natural resources. A globalised work force has to be made aware of the challenges in resource scarcity and material wealth. Special attention has also to be paid on health and safety at work due to recent demographic developments. We present two solutions based on human motion capture technology which can improve efficiency while enabling ergonomic working, thus addressing challenges in sustainable manufacturing. With a qualification module, intuitive work descriptions can be generated and distributed. An assistance module automatically adjusts the workplace to enable working in a comfortable pose. First tests regarding our qualification module show the ability to implicitly convey knowledge during simple working tasks. Studies on the assistance module show its capabilities to predict what test subjects working at the workplace would consider as configuration for ""comfortable"" and ""ergonomic"" working.
PublicationDie Lernfabrik( 2015)
;Seliger, G. ;Jochem, R. ;Straube, F.Kohl, H.Unter den Top-15-Pharmaunternehmen in Europa, verglichen nach Umsatz, befinden sich deutsche Unternehmen auf einer Spitzenposition. In Deutschland gehört die Pharmabranche mit 900 Unternehmen und 110000 Mitarbeitern zu den ältesten und bedeutendsten Branchen. Das ehemals stabile Umfeld der Unternehmen der Pharmaindustrie hat sich in den letzten Jahren stark verändert. Deshalb haben die Pharmaunternehmen damit begonnen, interne strukturelle Veränderungen, die Reduktion von Komplexität sowie Kostensenkungen zu fokussieren. In diesem Kontext hat sich branchenübergreifend das Konzept des Lean Management durchgesetzt. Es zielt auf die Verschlankung von Produktionsprozessen durch die Reduzierung von Verschwendung ab. Die Gestaltung derartiger schlanker Prozesse erfordert Mitarbeiter, die für die Wahrnehmung von Problemen im eigenen Arbeitsumfeld sowie für die kontinuierliche Verbesserung von Prozessen qualifiziert sind. Durch den Aufbau und Betrieb einer Lernfabrik lässt sich dieser Qualifizierungsbedarf nachhaltig sichern. Innerhalb einer Lernfabrik wird theoretisch erlerntes Wissen im Rahmen einer realitätsnahen, partizipativen und erlebnisorientierten Simulation angewendet und führt auf diese Weise zur Entwicklung von Kompetenzen. Im Rahmen eines Kooperationsprojektes haben ein deutsches Pharmaunternehmen, die TU Berlin und das Fraunhofer IPK eine Lernfabrik aufgebaut, mit der Lean Management nachhaltig vermittelt werden kann. Die Lernfabrik bildet realitätsnah eine vollständige Tablettenproduktion ab. Fazit ist, dass sich die Umsetzung des Konzepts der Lernfabrik speziell für die Pharmabranche als sehr sinnvoll herausgestellt hat. Bei den Produktionsmitarbeitern zeigte sich, dass der Transfer des Gelernten auf den eigenen Arbeitsbereich effizienter stattfindet.
PublicationKnowledge-Based Multimodal User Support to Increase Availability in Industrial Product-Service Systems( 2013)
;Wewior, J. ;Schmuntzsch, G. ;Seliger, G.Rötting, M.