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Solidification of GTA aluminum weld metal: Part 2 - Thermal conditions and model for columnar-to-equiaxed transition

2014 , Schempp, P. , Cross, C.E. , Pittner, A. , Rethmeier, M.

In this study, the influence of solute content and heat input on microstructure was investigated for gas tungsten arc (GTA) bead-on-plate welding of the aluminum alloys 1050A (Al 99.5) and 6082 (Al SilMgMn). Temperature measurements in the solidifying weld pool showed that parameters such as solidification growth rate, cooling rate, local thermal gradient, and solidification time vary significantly along the solidification front (between weld centerline and weld interface). As a result, the obtained thermal data were used to explain the corresponding grain morphology from the first part of this study. On the basis of this comparison, an analytical approach was used to model the transition from columnar-to-equiaxed grain growth (CET). This model allows the prediction of critical values for both solidification growth rate and thermal gradient, at which the CET occurs.

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Influence of grain size on mechanical properties of aluminium GTA weld metal

2013 , Schempp, P. , Cross, C.E. , Häcker, R. , Pittner, A. , Rethmeier, M.

Grain refinement is an important possibility to enhance the mechanical properties such as strength, ductility and toughness of aluminium weld metal. In this study, grain refinement was achieved through the addition of commercial grain refiner Al Ti5B1 to gas tungsten arc weld metal of the aluminium alloys 1050A (Al 99.5) and 5083 (Al Mg4.5Mn0.7). The grain refiner additions led to a significant reduction of the weld metal mean grain size (Alloy 1050A, 86 %; Alloy 5083, 44 %) with a change in grain shape from columnar to equiaxed. Tensile tests showed for Alloy 5083 that the weld metal's ductility can be increased through grain refinement. No improvement in weld metal strength (i.e. yield strength and ultimate tensile strength) was observed. Furthermore, tear tests with notched specimens revealed that the resistance against initiation and propagation of cracks in the weld metal can be enhanced through grain refinement. The toughness was observed to increase clearly by grain refinement in weld metal of commercial pure Al (Alloy 1050A). In Alloy 5083 weld metal, the toughness was not improved through grain refinement, likely because of a semi-continuous network of brittle intermetallic phases that facilitate crack propagation.