Now showing 1 - 10 of 2642
  • Publication
    Study on the transition behavior of the bulging effect during deep penetration laser beam welding
    ( 2022)
    Artinov, A.
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    Meng, X.
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    Bachmann, M.
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    Rethmeier, M.
    The present work is devoted to the study of the transition behavior of the recently confirmed widening of the weld pool, known as the bulging effect, during high-power deep penetration laser beam welding of thick unalloyed steel sheets. A three-dimensional transient multi-physics numerical model is developed, allowing for the prediction of the bulge formation and the study of its temporal behavior. The model is generalized to account automatically for the transition from partial to complete penetration. Several experimental measurements and observations, such as drilling period, weld pool length, temperature, efficiency, and metallographic cross-sections are used to verify the model and assure the plausibility of the numerical results. The analysis of the calculated temperature and velocity distributions, as well as the evolution of the keyhole geometry, show that the formation of a bulging region strongly depends on the penetration depth of the weld. Based on the numerical results, the bulge is found to occur transiently, having its transition from a slight bulge to a fully developed bulging between penetration depths of 6 mm and 9 mm, respectively.
  • Publication
    Multiple-Wire Submerged Arc Welding of High-Strength Fine-Grained Steels
    ( 2022)
    Gook, S.
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    ; ; ;
    Lichtenthäler, F.
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    Stark, M.
    Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed.
  • Publication
    Methodology for a reverse engineering process chain with focus on customized segmentation and iterative closest point algorithms
    ( 2022) ;
    Schröder, Robert
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    Stark, Rainer
    One-off construction is characterized by a multiplicity of manual manufacturing processes whereby it is based on consistent use of digital models. Since the actual state of construction does not match the digital models without manually updating them, the authors propose a method to automatically detect deviations and reposition the model data according to reality. The first essential method is based on the ""Segmentation of Unorganized Points and Recognition of Simple Algebraic Surfaces"" presented by Vanco et al.. The second method is the customization of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. The authors present the overall structure of the implemented software, based on open source and relate it to the general reverse engineering (RE) framework by Buonamici et al.. A highlight will be given on: the general architecture of the software prototype; a customized segmentation and clustering of unorganized points and recognition of simple algebraic surfaces; the deviation analysis with a customized iterative closest point (CICP) algorithm Especially in the field of one-off construction, characterized by small and medium companies, automated assessment of 3D scan data during the design process is still in its infancy. By using an open source environment progress for consistent use of digital models could be accelerated.
  • Publication
    Hybrid laser-arc welding of laser- and plasma-cut 20-mm-thick structural steels
    ( 2022)
    Üstündag, Ömer
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    Bakir, Nasim
    ;
    ; ;
    It is already known that the laser beam welding (LBW) or hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) processes are sensitive to manufacturing tolerances such as gaps and misalignment of the edges, especially at welding of thick-walled steels due to its narrow beam diameter. Therefore, the joining parts preferably have to be milled. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality, the gap and the misalignment of edges on the weld seam quality of hybrid laser-arc welded 20-mm-thick structural steel plates which were prepared by laser and plasma cutting. Single-pass welds were conducted in butt joint configuration. An AC magnet was used as a contactless backing. It was positioned under the workpiece during the welding process to prevent sagging. The profile of the edges and the gap between the workpieces were measured before welding by a profile scanner or a digital camera, respectively. With a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW, the single-pass welds could be performed. A gap bridgeability up to 1 mm at laser-cut and 2 mm at plasma-cut samples could be reached respectively. Furthermore, a misalignment of the edges up to 2 mm could be welded in a single pass. The new findings may eliminate the need for cost and time-consuming preparation of the edges.
  • Publication
    Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated by Multilayer Laser Powder-Based Directed Energy Deposition
    ( 2022)
    Ávila Calderón, Luis Alexander
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    Graf, Benjamin
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    Rehmer, Birgit
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    Petrat, Torsten
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    Skrotzki, Birgit
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    Laser powder-based directed energy deposition (DED-L) is increasingly being used in additive manufacturing (AM). As AM technology, DED-L must consider specific challenges. It must achieve uniform volume growth over hundreds of layers and avoid heat buildup of the deposited material. Herein, Ti-6Al-4V is fabricated using an approach that addresses these challenges and is relevant in terms of transferability to DED-L applications in AM. The assessment of the obtained properties and the discussion of their relationship to the process conditions and resulting microstructure are presented. The quality of the manufacturing process is proven in terms of the reproducibility of properties between individual blanks and with respect to the building height. The characterization demonstrates that excellent mechanical properties are achieved at room temperature and at 400 C.
  • Publication
    Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der Geometrie und Werkstoffeigenschaften laserimplantierter Werkzeugstahloberflächen sowie zum tribologischen Einsatzverhalten
    (Fraunhofer Verlag, 2022)
    Spranger, Felix
    In einer Vielzahl technischer Anwendungen spielt die Schaffung und Aufrechterhaltung eines definierten tribologischen Verhaltens zwischen in Kontakt tretenden Wirkflächen für die Funktionalität von Bauteilen oder Werkzeugen eine entscheidende Rolle. Verfahren der Oberflächentechnik verfolgen das Ziel, entweder durch eine Manipulation der Werkstoffeigenschaften oder durch eine Strukturierung der Wirkfächen diese anzupassen. Obwohl erhabene Mikrostrukturen großes Potenzial zur gezielten Manipulation zeigen, wurden diese bislang wenig betrachtet, da sie anfällig für Verschleiß sind und nur schwer hergestellt werden können. Mit der Laserimplantation ist ein Verfahren bekannt, welches diese Hemmnisse überwindet und eine Generierung verschleißbeständiger, erhabener Mikrostrukturen (Implants) durch ein gepulstes Laserdispergieren keramischer Hartstoffpartikel in Wirkflächen zulässt. Um eine breite Nutzbarkeit zu erreichen, wird in dieser Arbeit eine Erweiterung des Prozessverständnisses forciert, sodass die geometrischen als auch werkstofftechnischen Implanteigenschaften zielgerichtet manipulierbar werden. Des Weiteren wird die tribologische Wirkweise implantierter Oberflächen betrachtet.
  • Publication
    Numerical investigation into cleanability of support structures produced by powder bed fusion technology
    ( 2022)
    Campana, Giampaolo
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    Mele, Mattia
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    Raffaelli, Luca
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    Bergmann, André
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    ;
    Purpose: Support structures used in laser powder bed fusion are often difficult to clean from unsintered powder at the end of the process. This issue can be significantly reduced through a proper design of these auxiliary structures. This paper aims to investigate preliminary the airflow within differently oriented support structures and to provide design guidelines to enhance their cleanability, especially the depowdering of them. Design/methodology/approach: This study investigates the cleanability of support structures in powder bed fusion technology. Digital models of cleaning operations were designed through computer-aided engineering systems. Simulations of the airflow running into the powder entrapped within the thin walls of auxiliary supports were implemented by computational fluid dynamics. This approach was applied to a set of randomly generated geometrical configurations to determine the air turbulence intensity depending on their design. Findings: The resul ts, which are based on the assumption that a relationship exists between turbulence and powder removal effectiveness, demonstrated that the maximum cleanability is obtainable through specific relative rotations between consecutive support structures. Furthermore, it was possible to highlight the considerable influence of the auxiliary structures next to the fluid inlet. These relevant findings establish optimal design rules for the cleanability of parts manufactured by powder bed fusion processes. Originality/value: This study presents a preliminary investigation into the cleanability of support structures in laser powder bed fusion, which has not been addressed by previous literature. The results allow for a better understanding of the fluid dynamics during cleaning operations. New guidelines to enhance the cleanability of support structures are provided based on the results of simulations.
  • Publication
    Багатодротове дугове зварювання високоміцних дрібнозернистих сталей під флюсом
    ( 2022) ; ; ; ;
    Lichtenthäler, F.
    ;
    Stark, M.
    Ensuring the required mechanical-technological properties of welds is a critical issue in the application of multi-wire submerged arc welding process for welding high-strength fine-grained steels. Excessive heat input is one of the main causes for microstructural zones with deteriorated mechanical properties of the welded joint, such as a reduced notched impact strength and a lower structural robustness. A process variant is proposed which reduces the weld volume as well as the heat input by adjusting the welding wire configuration as well as the energetic parameters of the arcs, while retaining the advantages of multi-wire submerged arc welding such as high process stability and production speed
  • Publication
    Robot Inference of Human States: Performance and Transparency in Physical Collaboration
    ( 2022)
    Haninger, K.
    To flexibly collaborate towards a shared goal in human-robot interaction (HRI), a robot must appropriately respond to changes in their human partner. The robot can realize this flexibility by responding to certain inputs, or by inferring some aspect of their collaborator and using this to modify robot behavior-approaches which reflect design viewpoints of robots as tools and collaborators, respectively. Independent of this design viewpoint, the robot's response to a change in collaborator state must also be designed. In this regard, HRI approaches can be distinguished according to the scope of their design objectives: whether the design goal depends on the behavior of the individual agents or the coupled team. This chapter synthesizes work on physical HRI, largely in manufacturing tasks, according to the design viewpoint and scope of objective used. HRI is posed as the coupling of two dynamic systems; a framework which allows a unified presentation of the various design approaches and, within which, common concepts in HRI can be posed (intent, authority, information flow). Special attention is paid to predictability at various stages of the design and deployment process: whether the designer can predict team performance, whether the human can predict robot behavior, and to what degree the human behavior can be modelled or learned.
  • Publication
    Wolframschmelzcarbidbasierte MMC-Schichten für den industriellen Einsatz im Formenbau
    ( 2022)
    Langebeck, Anika
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    Jahnke, Christian
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    Wünderlich, Tim
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    Bohlen, Annika
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    Zur Steigerung der abrasiven Verschleißbeständigkeit können Oberflächen lokal mit Hartpartikeln verstärkt werden. Diese sogenannten Metal-Matrix-Composit(MMC)-Schichten können mittels Laserstrahldispergieren gefertigt und durch Mikrofräsen nachbearbeitet werden. Im hier vorgestellten Forschungsvorhaben wurde als Grundwerkstoff verwendete Aluminiumbronze (CuAl10Ni5Fe4) mit Wolframschmelzcarbid verstärkt. Der Hartpartikelgehalt kann dabei durch eine Steigerung des Pulvermassenstroms bis zur Packungsdichte des unverarbeiteten Pulvers erhöht werden. Über eine temperaturbasierte Leistungsregelung kann eine gleichbleibend homogene MMC-Schicht mit konstanter Dicke und Tiefe dispergiert werden. Durch das Mikrofräsen mit optimierten Parametern können qualitativ hochwertige MMC-Oberflächen für den industriellen Einsatz in Spritzgusswerkzeugen hergestellt werden. Dabei wurde vor allem der Zahnvorschub fz als kritischer Prozessparameter identifiziert.