Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik IPK
Now showing 1 - 10 of 1476
PublicationPowerGrasp: Development Aspects for Arm Support Systems( 2022)
;Goppold, J.-P. ;Kuschan, J. ;Schmidt, H.Krüger, J.Exoskeletons can support workers on physically demanding tasks, but in industry they lack of acceptance. This contribution gives an insight into design aspects for upper body exoskeletons, especially how active exoskeletons for industrial applications differ from military and medical use-cases. To overcome typical rigid exoskeleton problems, we suggest the use of modular soft-exosuit support systems and therefore checked different types of soft actuation principles for their eligibility for the use on upper body joints. Most promising approach is using two-layered actuators sting of robust fabric with embedded rubber tubes as pressure chambers. By inflating the tubes, it is possible to vary the stiffness of the chambers, which can be effectively used to generate assisting forces and moments at human joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, finger).
PublicationTime-Sensitive Networking over Metropolitan Area Networks for Remote Industrial Control( 2021)
;Tschöke, Simon ; ; ; ;Willner, Alexander ;Chemnitz, MoritzThe benefits of the currently evolving IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) standard have already been globally recognized. Whereas the application of TSN in a LAN is currently widely and globally tested, TSN in a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) has not been a major focus until now. The possible benefits of utilizing co-located Edge Clouds in order to support multiple urban production sites with industrial realtime applications open a wide range of new business models. Therefore, we have analyzed the feasibility of transparently using PROFINET over TSN via a Dense Wavelength Division Multiplex (DWDM) link, where a machine park is controlled remotely by an Edge-based virtual Programmable Logic Controller (vPLC). As a result, we are able to setup a TSN connection over a MAN with a one-way delay of about 156.5 J.ms and a jitter of about 12 ns. This work can be extended to allow for dynamically provisioned TSN flows and multi-path Frame Replication and Elimination (FRER) for distributed hard real-time machine control and adoption to Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication (URLLC) 5G campus networks.
PublicationInvestigation of the gap bridgeability at high-power laser hybrid welding of plasma-cut thick mild steels with AC magnetic support( 2021)
;Üstündag, Ö. ;Bakir, N. ;Gumenyuk, A.Rethmeier, M.One of the challenges of the high-power hybrid laser welding of thick steels is the sensitivity of the process of the process to manufacturing tolerances. This usually leads to a time-consuming preparation of the welding edges, such as milling. The study deals with the influence of the edge quality of milled and plasma-cut steel made of S355J2 with a wall thickness of 20 mm on the laser hybrid welded seam quality. Furthermore, the gap bridgeability and the tolerances towards edge misalignment was investigated. An AC magnet was used as backing support to prevent sagging and positioned under the workpiece, to generate an upwards directed electromagnetic pressure. The profiles of the edges and the gap on the top and root side were measured using a digital camera. Single-pass laser hybrid welds of plasma-cut edges could be welded using a laser beam power of just 13.7 kW. A gap bridgeability up to 2 mm and misalignment of edges up to 2 mm could be achieved successful. Additionally, the independence of the cutting side and the welding side was shown, so that samples were welded to the opposite side to their cutting. For evaluation of internal defects or irregularities, X-ray images were carried out. Charpy impact strength tests were performed to determine the toughness of the welds.
PublicationHow Pedestrians Perceive Autonomous Buses: Evaluating Visual Signals( 2021)
;Brandenburg, E. ;Kozachek, D. ;Konkol, K. ;Woelfel, C. ;Geiger, A.Stark, R.With the deployment of autonomous buses, sophisticated technological systems are entering our daily lives and their signals are becoming a crucial factor in human-machine interaction. The successful implementation of visual signals requires a well-researched human-centred design as a key component for the new transportation system. The autonomous vehicle we investigated in this study uses a variety of these: Icons, LED panels and text. We conducted a user study with 45 participants in a virtual reality environment in which four recurring communication scenarios between an autonomous driving bus and its potential passengers had to be correctly interpreted. For our four scenarios, efficiency and comprehension of each visual signal combination was measured to evaluate performance on different types of visual information. The results show that new visualization concepts such as LED panels lead to highly variable efficiency and comprehension, while text or icons were well ac cepted. In summary, the authors of this paper present the most efficient combinations of visual signals for four reality scenarios.
PublicationConcept for an actuated variable tool electrode for use in sinking EDM( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Streckenbach, J. ;Thißen, K. ;Schulte Westhoff, B. ;Masoud, A.Maas, J.Typically, a large number of individual tool electrodes has to be used in sinking electrical discharge machining (sinking EDM) to successfully machine a single workpiece. Due to non-uniform wear and insufficient flushing of the working gap electrode geometries have a significant effect on the process efficiency. This paper discusses the use of an actuated variable tool electrode for sinking EDM to reduce the number of required tool electrodes and to increase the overall process efficiency. A miniaturised linear actuator was developed to individually move electrode segments to form the target shape for the tool electrode. The coordinated actuation of bundled electrode segments introduces new methods for the active flushing within the working gap, which cannot be implemented in conventional sinking EDM. Intelligent sinking strategies can further improve process efficiency by creating and sinking sub-geometries into the workpiece offering improved flushing conditions compa red to the original geometry.
PublicationInteraction between capabilities of Model Based Systems Engineering on sensor models( 2021)
;Schmidt, M.M. ;Schmidt, S.Stark, R.In modern product development, models are often used for different purposes, e.g., system synthesis, trade-off analysis of system parameters or visualization and creation of design concepts. For some models, this purpose as well as the model itself might change over time. New interactions with the target system can occur and new details are added over time. Both have to be integrated immediately into the development procedure. When models are not maintained up to date and not used by different stakeholders, the benefits of the model-based approach are lessened due to the effort for generation and maintenance. The five development capabilities of MBSE, comprising Systems Environment Analytics (SEA), Systems Definition and Derivation (SDD), Systems Interaction Modeling (SIM), Systems Lifecycle Engineering (SLE) and the MBSE Capability and Maturation Matrix (CMM) address this topic on a capability level.In this article, the authors point out the interaction between these d evelopment capabilities on the example of a Pedestrian Emergency Braking System (PEBS) development in automotive industry, with a focus on sensor models. It will be shown exemplary how one development capability might influence another and how this interaction supports the development of complex systems.
PublicationReduction of erosion duration for electrical discharge drilling using a nature analogue algorithm with nested strategy types( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Streckenbach, J.Osmanovic, M.The required high economic efficiency, combined with the corresponding high quality demands, in the aerospace industry as well as in mould and tool making, motivate the necessity of finding suitable parameter combinations for the process of electrical discharge machining (EDM), e.g. when introducing new materials. To counteract this, various methods are being investigated in research for the optimisation of EDM. One new method is the stochastic optimisation procedure evolution strategy (ES). Due to its metaheuristic approach, this optimisation method is excellently suited for very complex processes in which the interrelationship of the individual influencing variables is not known. This publication presents the results of the investigation of the suitability of the ES optimisation method using the example of electrical discharge drilling. For this purpose, two nested ES-types were investigated. The electrode materials used were brass for the tool and stainless steel X5C rNi18-1 for the workpiece. As a result, the erosion duration could be reduced by 30 %. This investigation forms the basis for the use of nested ES types in electrical discharge drilling.
PublicationParticle contact conditions for cutting edge preparation of micro-milling tools by the immersed tumbling process( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, J. ;Kuche, Y.Landua, F.For increasing tool life and cutting length of micro-milling tools the cutting edge preparation was successfully established. Using the immersed tumbling process, a reproducible cutting edge preparation with constant cutting edge radii as well as low chipping of the cutting edges can be realised. For a profound understanding of the preparation process and the process mechanisms further knowledge about the particle interactions with cutting tools as well as the particle flow mechanisms needs to be obtained. In this investigation the preparation process of micro-milling tools was analysed and the contact-mechanisms as well as the resulting pressures were investigated by simulation studies. Using the discrete element method (DEM) with the software ROCKY DEM from the company ESSS, FlorianÃ³polis, Brasil, the immersed tumbling process could be modelled and particle contacts, particle traces as well as particle interactions with the micro-milling tool can be visualized. Espec ially the particle-tool interactions were more accurately investigated by analysing the stresses and particles shear work as well as correlations between these parameters to prove the comparability between the process simulation and the real preparation process.
PublicationImproved surface generation of multi-material objects in computed tomography using local histograms( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Hein, C. ;Kayser, N.Duerre, G.During the last decade industrial computed tomography (iCT) has become one of the most important metrological procedures for internal inspection, where it sees wide-spread use in injection molding and additive manufacturing. Evaluating the CT volume data of multi-material objects represents a major technical challenge. Due to artifacts caused by beam hardening, an over-segmentation of strongly absorbing materials occurs, severely limiting the accuracy of dimensional measurements. The goal of the project presented is the development of an innovative artifact-reduced multi-material segmentation. This is applied to and tested on various complex reconstructed CT data sets. Global approaches show high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) but are not able to compensate for local deviations. For smaller volumes the data sets become more consistent, but the SNR decreases due to the reduced data volume. Thus, a more localized approach for the volume image data has the potential to provid e results of higher accuracy. With this newly presented algorithm it is now possible to perform segmentation of all materials, while eliminating over-segmentation errors as well as local noise artifacts almost completely for all tested datasets.
PublicationApplication of tool electrodes oxidised with humid and dry air during the electro-discharge drilling of MAR-M247 alloy( 2021)
;Uhlmann, E. ;Polte, M. ;Streckenbach, J. ;Camin, B. ;Chocholaty, O.Dinh, N.C.The requirements and challenges of machining advanced materials in the field of aerospace, automotive and tool industry are increasing constantly. Due to their mechanical properties, cutting of high-strength materials such as superalloys is severely limited. Electro-discharge drilling can be used for the manufacturing of holes in hard to machine materials. Although electrical discharge machining (EDM) is successfully applied to the machining of holes in turbine blades, a lack of performance and challenges concerning the geometrical accuracy still remain. By applying inner flushing, the resulting electrically conductive debris is flushed through the lateral working gap, increasing the probability of arcs and short circuits. The resulting increased tool wear, conicity of the hole, limited hole depth and process instabilities are still challenging in electro-discharge drilling. In order to decrease the effects of the arcs and short circuits, a surface modification is appli ed to increase the electrical resistance of the lateral surface of the tool electrode. As a result, the mentioned impairments occur less frequently due to decreased occurrence of arcs and short circuits in the lateral working gap. For the present investigation copper tool electrodes were thermally oxidised in dry and humid air with different durations and used afterwards for electro-discharge drilling of MAR-M247. The tests were carried out on the machine tool AGIETRON Compact 1 from the company GF AgieCharmilles, Losone, Switzerland. Holes with a depth of t = 11 mm were drilled using various surface-modified tool electrodes with a diameter of d = 2 mm. Oxidation with dry air and a extended oxidation time resulted in a 18 % lower erosion duration, accompanied by an increase of the linear wear of the tool electrode Île below 10 %.